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Abdom Radiol (NY). 2019 Apr;44(4):1470-1480. doi: 10.1007/s00261-018-1848-x.

Juxtatumoral perinephric fat analysis in clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

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Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Radiology, Los Angeles, CA, 90033, USA.
Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Pathology, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
Keck School of Medicine, USC Institute of Urology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Radiology, Los Angeles, CA, 90033, USA.



The purpose of the study was to evaluate the feasibility of using contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT)-based texture analysis (CTTA) metrics to differentiate between juxtatumoral perinephric fat (JPF) surrounding low-grade (ISUP 1-2) versus high-grade (ISUP 3-4) clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC).


In this IRB-approved study, we retrospectively queried the surgical database between June 2009 and April 2016 and identified 83 patients with pathologically confirmed ccRCC (low grade: n = 54, mean age = 61.5 years, 18F/35M; high grade n = 30, mean age = 61.7 years, 8F/22M) who also had pre-operative multiphase CT acquisitions. CT images were transferred to a 3D workstation, and nephrographic phase JPF regions were manually segmented. Using an in-house developed Matlab program, a CTTA panel comprising of texture metrics extracted using six different methods, histogram, 2D- and 3D-Gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) and Gray-level difference matrix (GLDM), and 2D-Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) analyses, was applied to the segmented images to assess JPF textural heterogeneity in low- versus high-grade ccRCC. Univariate analysis and receiver-operator characteristics (ROC) analysis were used to assess interclass differences in texture metrics and their prediction accuracy, respectively.


All methods except GLCM consistently revealed increased heterogeneity in the JPF surrounding high- versus low-grade ccRCC. FFT showed increased complexity index (p < 0.01). Histogram analysis showed increased kurtosis and positive skewness in (p < 0.03), and GLDM analysis showed decreased measure of correlation coefficient (MCC) (p < 0.04). Several of the GLCM metrics showed statistically significant (p < 0.04) textural differences between the two groups, but with no consistent trend. ROC analysis showed that MCC in GLCM analysis had an area under the curve of 0.75.


Our study suggests that CTTA of ccRCC shows statistically significant textural differences in JPF surrounding high- versus low-grade ccRCC.


CcRCC; Perinephric fat; Radiomics; Renal mass; Texture; Tumor grade


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