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Nat Commun. 2018 Nov 30;9(1):5092. doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-07233-7.

Immediate neurophysiological effects of transcranial electrical stimulation.

Author information

1
New York University Comprehensive Epilepsy Center, 223 34th Street, New York, NY, 10016, USA. anli.liu@nyumc.org.
2
Department of Neurology, NYU Langone Health, 222 East 41st Street, 14th Floor, New York, NY, 10016, USA. anli.liu@nyumc.org.
3
MTA-SZTE 'Momentum' Oscillatory Neuronal Networks Research Group, Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Szeged, 10 Dom sq., Szeged, H-6720, Hungary.
4
New York University Neuroscience Institute, 435 East 30th Street, New York, NY, 10016, USA.
5
Department of Biomedical Engineering, City College of New York, 160 Convent Ave, New York, NY, 10031, USA.
6
New York University Comprehensive Epilepsy Center, 223 34th Street, New York, NY, 10016, USA.
7
Department of Neurology, NYU Langone Health, 222 East 41st Street, 14th Floor, New York, NY, 10016, USA.
8
Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, Montreal, QC, H3A 2B4, Canada.
9
Department of Biomedical Engineering of Minnesota, 312 Church St. SE, Minneapolis, MN, 55455, USA.
10
Department of Neurosurgery, Hofstra Northwell School of Medicine, 611 Northern Blvd, Great Neck, NY, 11021, USA.
11
Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, Hofstra Northwell School of Medicine, 350 Community Drive, Manhasset, NY, 11030, USA.
12
Center for Molecular and Behavioral Neuroscience, Rutgers University, 197 University Avenue, Newark, NJ, 07102, USA.
13
Max Planck Institute for Empirical Aesthetics, Grüneburgweg 14, 60322, Frankfurt am Main, Germany.
14
New York University Neuroscience Institute, 435 East 30th Street, New York, NY, 10016, USA. gyorgy.buzsaki@nyumc.org.

Abstract

Noninvasive brain stimulation techniques are used in experimental and clinical fields for their potential effects on brain network dynamics and behavior. Transcranial electrical stimulation (TES), including transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS), has gained popularity because of its convenience and potential as a chronic therapy. However, a mechanistic understanding of TES has lagged behind its widespread adoption. Here, we review data and modelling on the immediate neurophysiological effects of TES in vitro as well as in vivo in both humans and other animals. While it remains unclear how typical TES protocols affect neural activity, we propose that validated models of current flow should inform study design and artifacts should be carefully excluded during signal recording and analysis. Potential indirect effects of TES (e.g., peripheral stimulation) should be investigated in more detail and further explored in experimental designs. We also consider how novel technologies may stimulate the next generation of TES experiments and devices, thus enhancing validity, specificity, and reproducibility.

PMID:
30504921
PMCID:
PMC6269428
DOI:
10.1038/s41467-018-07233-7
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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