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Neurol India. 2018 Nov-Dec;66(6):1694-1703. doi: 10.4103/0028-3886.246288.

Endoscopic surgery of spontaneous basal ganglionic hemorrhage.

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Department of Neurosurgery, Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose Medical College, Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh, India.
Department of Radiology and Imaging, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.



Although there are controversies about the optimal management of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), benefits of endoscopic procedures in ICH have been reported. This study is aimed to evaluate the result of 270 patients undergoing endoscopic treatment of ICH.


This was a retrospective study from July 2008 to June 2017. All procedures were done with the endoscopic technique using a tubular retractor. Patients with the hematoma volume between 30 to 80 ml, with the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) between 5 to 14, and evidence of severe mass effect, were included in the study.


The average stay in the intensive care unit was 6 days (range 1-17 days). The median pre-operative midline shift of 8.3 mm was reduced to 2.7 mm after surgery. The average hematoma removal ratio, the duration of surgery, and the blood loss was 90%, 90 min, and 60 ml, respectively. There was improvement in the average pre-operative GCS from 9.4 to 11.3 at seventh post-operative day. The post-operative mortality rate was 10.7%. A good outcome was observed in 71% patients at 6 months after surgery. Larger the volume of hematoma, more the operative time, more the pre-operative midline shift, and poorer the GCS, significantly higher was the association with mortality. The patients with a better pre-operative GCS were associated with a better Glasgow Outcome Score. The follow-up period ranged from 7 to 115 months.


Endoscopic surgery with the help of a tubular retractor was effective and safe. It allowed for a good visualization of the hematoma and the surrounding brain, and helped in proper hemostasis. The hematoma may also be removed with the help of the microscope and the tubular retractor, in case any difficulty during the endoscopic technique is encountered.


Brain hemorrhage; cerebral hemorrhage; endoscopic surgical procedure; endoscopy; hypertensive hemorrhage; intracerebral hemorrhage; minimally invasive surgical procedure; putaminal hemorrhage; stroke; surgical decompression

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