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Behav Brain Res. 2019 Mar 15;360:16-35. doi: 10.1016/j.bbr.2018.11.038. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

A potential mechanism for first-person internal sensation of memory provides evidence for the relationship between learning and LTP induction.

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Neurosearch Center, 76 Henry Street, Toronto, M5T1X2, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address:


Studies conducted to verify learning-induced changes anticipated from Hebb's postulate led to the finding of long-term potentiation (LTP). Even though several correlations have been found between behavioural markers of memory retrieval and LTP, it is not known how memories are retrieved using learning-induced changes. In this context, the following non-correlated findings between learning and LTP induction provide constraints for discovering the mechanism: 1) Requirement of high stimulus intensity for LTP induction in contrast to what is expected for a learning mechanism, 2) Delay of at least 20 to 30 s from stimulation to LTP induction, in contrast to mere milliseconds for associative learning, and 3) A sudden drop in peak-potentiated effect (short-term potentiation) that matches with short-lasting changes expected during working memory and occurs only at the time of delayed LTP induction. When memories are viewed as first-person internal sensations, a newly uncovered mechanism provides explanation for the relationship between memory and LTP. This work interconnects large number of findings from the fields of neuroscience and psychology and provides a further verifiable mechanism of learning.


Behaviour; First-person property; Internal sensation of memory; LTP; Learning; Long-term potentiation; Memory; Mind; Motor activity

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