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Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2018 Nov 27;169:696-706. doi: 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2018.11.082. [Epub ahead of print]

Food Yellow4 reprotoxicity in relation to localization of DMC1 and apoptosis in rat testes: Roles of royal jelly and cod liver oil.

Author information

1
Department of Histology and Cytology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig 44511, Egypt; Laboratory of Anatomy, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita-Ku, Sapporo, Japan.
2
Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig 44511, Egypt. Electronic address: amanyrahman292@yahoo.com.
3
Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig 44511, Egypt.
4
Department of Histology and Cytology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig 44511, Egypt.
5
Laboratory of Anatomy, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita-Ku, Sapporo, Japan.

Abstract

Food Yellow 4 (FY4) is a lemon-yellow-colored synthetic organic azo dye, which is used widely for imparting pleasant and attractive appearance to foods and cosmetics. The present study aimed at evaluating the possible mechanism underlying the FY4-induced reprotoxicity in rats, and the potential supportive role of royal jelly (RJ) or cod liver oil (CLO), which is a natural remedy with several pharmacological benefits, against induced toxicity. Forty-eight male rats were divided into different groups-the control group, the CLO group (0.4 mL/kg), the RJ group (300 mg/kg), the FY4 group (500 mg/kg b.w.), and the co-treated groups (FY4 + CLO or FY4 + RJ). Semen analysis, serum hormones, and enzyme activities were estimated. Immunohistochemical staining was performed using anti-PCNA, anti-Sox 9, anti-STRA8, anti-DMC1, and anti-ssDNA antibody. The FY4 group exhibited a significant decrease in sperm concentration and motility percentage (%) and a substantial reduction in the TES and LH levels. Testicular LDH, ACP, and SDH were observed to be inhibited. Furthermore, co-localization of DMC1 and ssDNA, which reflected apoptotic induction in the leptotene and zygotene spermatocytes, respectively, was observed to have markedly elevated in the FY4 treated rats, with fewer PCNA-positive and SOX9-positive cells and higher ssDNA-positive cells in the seminiferous epithelium in comparison to the control groups. Interestingly, co-treatment with CLO or RJ exhibited healthy sperms and restored their features, activated the enzyme production, and raised the levels of sexual hormones. In addition, both RJ and CLO restored the features of the testicular tissue as observed under a light microscope, and limited the apoptosis as observed through antibody staining. Collectively, the results of the present study revealed that the co-administration of RJ or CLO with FY4 improved the biochemical, hormonal, and structural aspects of the testicular tissue in rats. Therefore, CLO and RJ may be considered promising agents that would be able to improve the testicular structure and function in the FY4-exposed individuals.

KEYWORDS:

Apoptosis; Food colorant, Immunofluorescence; Royal jelly; SDH; Spermatogonia

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