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Microb Drug Resist. 2018 Nov 30. doi: 10.1089/mdr.2018.0146. [Epub ahead of print]

Genetic Diversity Analysis of Mupirocin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Clinical Isolates in Tehran Hospitals, Iran.

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1 Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences , Tehran, Iran .
2 Department of Virology, Pasteur Institute of Iran , Tehran, Iran .
3 School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences , Tehran, Iran .


Few studies describe the molecular characterization of mupirocin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus strains. In this study, we evaluated the characteristics of mupirocin resistance in S. aureus isolates for 1-year period in Tehran, Iran. In a cross-sectional study, we collected 51 unique mupirocin-resistant strains obtained from 648 S. aureus isolates. High- and low-level resistance were determined by minimum inhibitory concentration with broth microdilution method. Presence of the genes for resistance to antibiotics and toxins was detected by polymerase chain reaction assays. Genotyping was performed by S. aureus protein A (spa) and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing, whereas clones were determined by multilocus sequence typing. Among mupirocin-resistant isolates, methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) 23 (45.1%) and 28 (54.9%) isolates were classified as high- and low-level mupirocin resistance, respectively. Among the 51 tested strains 25 (49%) isolates were positive for mupA genes. Seven different clones were detected in this study. High-level mupirocin-resistant (HLMUPR) strains belonged to ST8-SCCmec IV/t064 (n = 10, 19.6%), ST5-SCCmec IV/t002 (n = 5, 9.8%), ST8-SCCmec IV/t008 (n = 4, 7.8%), and ST239-SCCmec III/t631 (n = 4, 7.8%) clones, while low-level mupirocin-resistant (LLMUPR) strains belonged to ST22-SCCmec IV/t790 (n = 11, 21.6%), ST239-SCCmec III/t860 (n = 9, 17.7%), and ST15-SCCmec IV/t084 (n = 8, 15.7%) clones. Two strains belonged to ST22-SCCmec IV/t790 clone, despite carrying mupA gene, and demonstrated LLMUPR phenotype. One ST8-SCCmecIV/t008 strain with HLMUPR was confirmed as Vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus strain. Our data demonstrated the need for thorough epidemiological monitoring and a routine mupirocin testing program to prevent and detect mupirocin resistance in MRSA.


typing; SCC typing; methicillin-resistant ; multilocus sequence typing; mupirocin; polymerase chain reaction


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