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Adv Clin Exp Med. 2018 Nov 30. doi: 10.17219/acem/94165. [Epub ahead of print]

Emergence of Enterobacteriaceae co-producing CTX-M-15, ArmA and PMQR in Poland.

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Department of Bacteriology, National Institute of Public Health-National Institute of Hygiene, Warszawa, Poland.



Plasmid-mediated extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs), 16S rRNA methylases and quinolone resistance mechanisms (PMQRs) are well-known agents conferring resistance to more than 1 antimicrobial in its group. The accumulation of these agents poses, therefore, a serious risk to public health.


The objective of this study was to investigate the presence of common ß-lactamases and 16S rRNA methylases in Qnr-producing Enterobacteriaceae and their genetic relatedness.


We examined 18 Qnr-producing isolates (Klebsiella pneumoniae n = 8, Enterobacter cloacae n = 6 and Escherichia coli n = 4) selected from a collection of 215 ciprofloxacin-resistant strains obtained from patients in a 1030-bed tertiary hospital from 1 March to 31 August 2010. The antibiotics minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by E-test. The detection of common ß-lactamases, 16S rRNA methyltransferases and PMQR genes was performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing. Genetic relatedness was assessed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST).


All the isolates tested were susceptible to carbapenems and colistin, while 16 were multidrug-resistant. Thirteen, 2 and 2 isolates carried qnrB1, qnrA1 and qnrS1, respectively. Ten of 13 qnrB1-positive Enterobacteriaceae also carried genes encoding for aac(6')-Ib-cr and at least 1 ESBL. The blaCTX-M-15 gene was the most common ESBL. The most prevalent combination of genes was qnrB1+aac(6')-Ib-cr+blaTEM-1+blaCTX-M-15. Two isolates of K. pneumoniae and E. cloacae were found to bear multiple extended range resistance traits: ArmA, CTX-M-15, QnrB1, and AAC (6')-Ib-cr. The PFGE showed that most of the isolates exhibited individual DNA patterns, whilst MLST assigned K. pneumoniae (n = 8) to 5 sequence types (STs) (ST15, ST323, ST336, ST147, and ST525), E. coli (n = 4) to 2 (ST131 and ST1431) and E. cloacae (n = 5) to 4 (ST90, ST89, ST133, and the novel ST407).


Our findings reveal the accumulation of resistance traits and their important role in spreading of multiresistant bacteria among hospitalized patients.


ESBLs; Enterobacteriaceae; MDR; PMQR; Poland


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