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Science. 2018 Nov 30;362(6418). pii: eaat9076. doi: 10.1126/science.aat9076.

Colonocyte metabolism shapes the gut microbiota.

Author information

1
Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA.
2
Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA. ajbaumler@ucdavis.edu.

Abstract

An imbalance in the colonic microbiota might underlie many human diseases, but the mechanisms that maintain homeostasis remain elusive. Recent insights suggest that colonocyte metabolism functions as a control switch, mediating a shift between homeostatic and dysbiotic communities. During homeostasis, colonocyte metabolism is directed toward oxidative phosphorylation, resulting in high epithelial oxygen consumption. The consequent epithelial hypoxia helps to maintain a microbial community dominated by obligate anaerobic bacteria, which provide benefit by converting fiber into fermentation products absorbed by the host. Conditions that alter the metabolism of the colonic epithelium increase epithelial oxygenation, thereby driving an expansion of facultative anaerobic bacteria, a hallmark of dysbiosis in the colon. Enteric pathogens subvert colonocyte metabolism to escape niche protection conferred by the gut microbiota. The reverse strategy, a metabolic reprogramming to restore colonocyte hypoxia, represents a promising new therapeutic approach for rebalancing the colonic microbiota in a broad spectrum of human diseases.

PMID:
30498100
PMCID:
PMC6296223
DOI:
10.1126/science.aat9076
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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