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Lancet Neurol. 2018 Nov 26. pii: S1474-4422(18)30415-0. doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(18)30415-0. [Epub ahead of print]

Global, regional, and national burden of traumatic brain injury and spinal cord injury, 1990-2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016.

Collaborators (374)

James SL, Theadom A, Ellenbogen RG, Bannick MS, Montjoy-Venning W, Lucchesi LR, Abbasi N, Abdulkader R, Abraha HN, Adsuar JC, Afarideh M, Agrawal S, Ahmadi A, Ahmed MB, Aichour AN, Aichour I, Aichour MTE, Akinyemi RO, Akseer N, Alahdab F, Alebel A, Alghnam SA, Ali BA, Alsharif U, Altirkawi K, Andrei CL, Anjomshoa M, Ansari H, Ansha MG, Antonio CAT, Appiah SCY, Ariani F, Asefa NG, Asgedom SW, Atique S, Awasthi A, Ayala Quintanilla BP, Ayuk TB, Azzopardi PS, Badali H, Badawi A, Balalla S, Banstola A, Barker-Collo SL, Bärnighausen TW, Bedi N, Behzadifar M, Behzadifar M, Bekele BB, Belachew AB, Belay YA, Bennett DA, Bensenor IM, Berhane A, Beuran M, Bhalla A, Bhaumik S, Bhutta ZA, Biadgo B, Biffino M, Bijani A, Bililign N, Birungi C, Boufous S, Brazinova A, Brown AW, Car M, Cárdenas R, Carrero JJ, Carvalho F, Castañeda-Orjuela CA, Catalá-López F, Chaiah Y, Champs AP, Chang JC, Choi JJ, Christopher DJ, Cooper C, Crowe CS, Dandona L, Dandona R, Daryani A, Davitoiu DV, Degefa MG, Demoz GT, Deribe K, Djalalinia S, Do HP, Doku DT, Drake TM, Dubey M, Dubljanin E, El-Khatib Z, Ofori-Asenso R, Eskandarieh S, Esteghamati A, Esteghamati S, Faro A, Farzadfar F, Farzaei MH, Fereshtehnejad SM, Fernandes E, Feyissa GT, Filip I, Fischer F, Fukumoto T, Ganji M, Gankpe FG, Gebre AK, Gebrehiwot TT, Gezae KE, Gopalkrishna G, Goulart AC, Haagsma JA, Haj-Mirzaian A, Haj-Mirzaian A, Hamadeh RR, Hamidi S, Haro JM, Hassankhani H, Hassen HY, Havmoeller R, Hawley C, Hay SI, Hegazy MI, Hendrie D, Henok A, Hibstu DT, Hoffman HJ, Hole MK, Homaie Rad E, Hosseini SM, Hostiuc S, Hu G, Hussen MA, Ilesanmi OS, Irvani SSN, Jakovljevic M, Jayaraman S, Jha RP, Jonas JB, Jones KM, Jorjoran Shushtari Z, Jozwiak JJ, Jürisson M, Kabir A, Kahsay A, Kahssay M, Kalani R, Karch A, Kasaeian A, Kassa GM, Kassa TD, Kassa ZY, Kengne AP, Khader YS, Khafaie MA, Khalid N, Khalil I, Khan EA, Khan MS, Khang YH, Khazaie H, Khoja AT, Khubchandani J, Kiadaliri AA, Kim D, Kim YE, Kisa A, Koyanagi A, Krohn KJ, Kuate Defo B, Kucuk Bicer B, Kumar GA, Kumar M, Lalloo R, Lami FH, Lansingh VC, Laryea DO, Latifi A, Leshargie CT, Levi M, Li S, Liben ML, Lotufo PA, Lunevicius R, Mahotra NB, Majdan M, Majeed A, Malekzadeh R, Manda AL, Mansournia MA, Massenburg BB, Mate KKV, Mehndiratta MM, Mehta V, Meles H, Melese A, Memiah PTN, Mendoza W, Mengistu G, Meretoja A, Meretoja TJ, Mestrovic T, Miazgowski T, Miller TR, Mini GK, Mirica A, Mirrakhimov EM, Moazen B, Mohammadi M, Molokhia M, Monasta L, Mondello S, Moosazadeh M, Moradi G, Moradi M, Moradi-Lakeh M, Moradinazar M, Morrison SD, Moschos MM, Mousavi SM, Murthy S, Musa KI, Mustafa G, Naghavi M, Naik G, Najafi F, Nangia V, Nascimento BR, Negoi I, Nguyen TH, Nichols E, Ningrum DNA, Nirayo YL, Nyasulu PS, Ogbo FA, Oh IH, Okoro A, Olagunju AT, Olagunju TO, Olivares PR, Otstavnov SS, Owolabi MO, P A M, Pakhale S, Pandey AR, Pesudovs K, Pinilla-Monsalve GD, Polinder S, Poustchi H, Prakash S, Qorbani M, Radfar A, Rafay A, Rafiei A, Rahimi-Movaghar A, Rahimi-Movaghar V, Rahman M, Rahman MA, Rai RK, Rajati F, Ram U, Rawaf DL, Rawaf S, Reiner RC, Reis C, Renzaho AMN, Resnikoff S, Rezaei S, Rezaeian S, Roever L, Ronfani L, Roshandel G, Roy N, Ruhago GM, Saddik B, Safari H, Safiri S, Sahraian MA, Salamati P, Saldanha RF, Samy AM, Sanabria J, Santos JV, Santric Milicevic MMM, Sartorius B, Satpathy M, Savuon K, Schneider IJC, Schwebel DC, Sepanlou SG, Shabaninejad H, Shaikh MAA, Shams-Beyranvand M, Sharif M, Sharif-Alhoseini M, Shariful Islam SM, She J, Sheikh A, Shen J, Sheth KN, Shibuya K, Shiferaw MS, Shigematsu M, Shiri R, Shiue I, Shoman H, Siabani S, Siddiqi TJ, Silva JP, Silveira DGA, Sinha DN, Smith M, Soares Filho AM, Sobhani S, Soofi M, Soriano JB, Soyiri IN, Stein DJ, Stokes MA, Sufiyan MB, Sunguya BF, Sunshine JE, Sykes BL, Szoeke CEI, Tabarés-Seisdedos R, Te Ao BJ, Tehrani-Banihashemi A, Tekle MG, Temsah MH, Temsah O, Topor-Madry R, Tortajada-Girbés M, Tran BX, Tran KB, Tudor Car L, Ukwaja KN, Ullah I, Usman MS, Uthman OA, Valdez PR, Vasankari TJ, Venketasubramanian N, Violante FS, Wagnew FWS, Waheed Y, Wang YP, Weldegwergs KG, Werdecker A, Wijeratne T, Winkler AS, Wyper GMA, Yano Y, Yaseri M, Yasin YJ, Ye P, Yimer EM, Yip P, Yisma E, Yonemoto N, Yoon SJ, Yost MG, Younis MZ, Yousefifard M, Yu C, Zaidi Z, Zaman SB, Zamani M, Zenebe ZM, Zodpey S, Feigin VL, Vos T, Murray CJL.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and spinal cord injury (SCI) are increasingly recognised as global health priorities in view of the preventability of most injuries and the complex and expensive medical care they necessitate. We aimed to measure the incidence, prevalence, and years of life lived with disability (YLDs) for TBI and SCI from all causes of injury in every country, to describe how these measures have changed between 1990 and 2016, and to estimate the proportion of TBI and SCI cases caused by different types of injury.

METHODS:

We used results from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors (GBD) Study 2016 to measure the global, regional, and national burden of TBI and SCI by age and sex. We measured the incidence and prevalence of all causes of injury requiring medical care in inpatient and outpatient records, literature studies, and survey data. By use of clinical record data, we estimated the proportion of each cause of injury that required medical care that would result in TBI or SCI being considered as the nature of injury. We used literature studies to establish standardised mortality ratios and applied differential equations to convert incidence to prevalence of long-term disability. Finally, we applied GBD disability weights to calculate YLDs. We used a Bayesian meta-regression tool for epidemiological modelling, used cause-specific mortality rates for non-fatal estimation, and adjusted our results for disability experienced with comorbid conditions. We also analysed results on the basis of the Socio-demographic Index, a compound measure of income per capita, education, and fertility.

FINDINGS:

In 2016, there were 27·08 million (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 24·30-30·30 million) new cases of TBI and 0·93 million (0·78-1·16 million) new cases of SCI, with age-standardised incidence rates of 369 (331-412) per 100 000 population for TBI and 13 (11-16) per 100 000 for SCI. In 2016, the number of prevalent cases of TBI was 55·50 million (53·40-57·62 million) and of SCI was 27·04 million (24·98-30·15 million). From 1990 to 2016, the age-standardised prevalence of TBI increased by 8·4% (95% UI 7·7 to 9·2), whereas that of SCI did not change significantly (-0·2% [-2·1 to 2·7]). Age-standardised incidence rates increased by 3·6% (1·8 to 5·5) for TBI, but did not change significantly for SCI (-3·6% [-7·4 to 4·0]). TBI caused 8·1 million (95% UI 6·0-10·4 million) YLDs and SCI caused 9·5 million (6·7-12·4 million) YLDs in 2016, corresponding to age-standardised rates of 111 (82-141) per 100 000 for TBI and 130 (90-170) per 100 000 for SCI. Falls and road injuries were the leading causes of new cases of TBI and SCI in most regions.

INTERPRETATION:

TBI and SCI constitute a considerable portion of the global injury burden and are caused primarily by falls and road injuries. The increase in incidence of TBI over time might continue in view of increases in population density, population ageing, and increasing use of motor vehicles, motorcycles, and bicycles. The number of individuals living with SCI is expected to increase in view of population growth, which is concerning because of the specialised care that people with SCI can require. Our study was limited by data sparsity in some regions, and it will be important to invest greater resources in collection of data for TBI and SCI to improve the accuracy of future assessments.

FUNDING:

Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

PMID:
30497965
DOI:
10.1016/S1474-4422(18)30415-0
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