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Ultrasound Med Biol. 2018 Nov 27. pii: S0301-5629(18)30417-4. doi: 10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2018.09.017. [Epub ahead of print]

Medical Student Ultrasound Education: A WFUMB Position Paper, Part I.

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Department of Internal Medicine 2, Caritas Krankenhaus, Bad Mergentheim, Germany; Ultrasound Department, First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China. Electronic address:
Harvard Medical School, Department of Emergency Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, USA.
Ultrasound Services, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA.
Imaging Desk & Ultrasound Department, School of Medicine, Iuliu Hatieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy, and Octavian Fodor Institute of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Cluj Napoca, Romania.
Translational Gastroenterology Unit, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom.
Department of Imaging Diagnostics, Policlinico Umberto I, University Sapienza, Rome, Italy.
Department of Radiology, Hospital das Clinicas, School of Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.
Department of Medical Ultrasound, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.
Department of Ultrasound, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.
National Centre for Ultrasound in Gastroenterology, Haukeland University Hospital, and Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
Universität Bern, Berner Institut für Hausarztmedizin (BIHAM), Bern, Switzerland.
Department of Medical Imaging, Penn Presbyterian Medical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.
College of Nursing and Health Sciences, Flinders University, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia; Sydney Ultrasound for Women, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.
Ultrasound Section, Division of Surgery, Department of Gastroenterology, Herlev Hospital, Copenhagen Academy for Medical Education and Simulation, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
Department of Internal Medicine and Gastroenterology, Brandenburg Medical School Theodor Fontane, Neuruppin, Germany.
Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-Guided Therapy, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna General Hospital, Vienna, Austria.
Diagnostic Radiology Institute, Paula Stradins clinical university hospital, University of Latvia, Riga Stradins university, Riga, Latvia.
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Sono Education Academy, University Hospital Bonn, Bonn, Germany.
Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.
Department of Gastroenterology, Research Center of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Craiova, Romania.
Department of Internal Medicine and Nephrology, EFSUMB Learning Center, Klinik Hirslanden, Zürich, Switzerland.
College of Nursing and Health Sciences, Flinders University, Adelaide, Australia.
Department of Imaging & Diagnostic Radiology, WFUMB COE, Aga Khan University Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya.
Ultrasound, Charles Sturt University, Australia, New South Wales, Australia.
Department of Radiology, Taipei Veterans General Hospital and School of Medicine, National Yang Ming University, Yuanpei University of Medical Technology, Taipei Taiwan.
University of South Carolina School of Medicine, Department of Emergency Medicine, St. Francis Hospital, Columbus Georgia, USA.


The introduction of ultrasound into medical student education is well underway in many locations around the world, but is still in its infancy or has yet to begin in others. Proper incorporation of ultrasound education into medical training requires planning and resources, both capital and human. In this article, we discuss the state of the art of ultrasound in medical education throughout the world, as well as various methodologies utilized to improve student education and to incorporate ultrasound into every facet of training. Experiences from various educational systems and available evidence regarding the impact of ultrasound education are summarized. Representing multiple societies and specialties throughout the world, we discuss established modern as well as novel education structures and different successful approaches.


Education; Knobology; Medical students; Point of care; Ultrasound

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