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J Hazard Mater. 2019 Mar 5;365:883-894. doi: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2018.11.068. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Optimizing of pharmaceutical active compounds biodegradability in secondary effluents by β-lactamase from Bacillus subtilis using central composite design.

Author information

1
Micro-Pollutant Research Centre (MPRC), Department of Water and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, 86400, Parit Raja, Batu Pahat, Johor, Malaysia. Electronic address: adel@uthm.edu.my.
2
Faculty of Applied Sciences and Technology, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM), KM11 Jalan Panchor, 84000, Pagoh, Muar, Johor, Malaysia; Department of Applied Microbiology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Taiz University, Taiz, Yemen.
3
Micro-Pollutant Research Centre (MPRC), Department of Water and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, 86400, Parit Raja, Batu Pahat, Johor, Malaysia.
4
School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800, Penang, Malaysia.
5
Department of Architecture and Engineering Design, Faculty of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, 86400, Parit Raja, Batu Pahat, Johor, Malaysia.

Abstract

Biodegradation of pharmaceuticals active compounds (PACs) in secondary effluents by using B. subtilis 2012WTNC as a function of β-lactamase was optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) designed by central composite design (CCD). Four factors including initial concentration of bacteria (1-6 log10 CFU mL-1), incubation period (1-14 days), incubation temperature (20-40 °C) and initial concentration of PACs (1-5 mg L-1) were investigated. The optimal operating factors for biodegradation process determined using response surface methodology (RSM) was recorded with 5.57 log10 CFU mL-1 of B. subtilis, for 10.38 days, at 36.62 °C and with 4.14 mg L-1 of (cephalexin/amoxicillin) with R2 coefficient of 0.99. The biodegradation was 83.81 and 93.94% respectively. The relationship among the independent variables was significant (p < 0.05) with 95% of confidence level at the best operating parameters. The bioassay for PACs after the degradation process revealed that no residual antibiotic activity was detected of amoxicillin and cephalexin against E. coli and S. aureus after degradation using B. subtilis which reflects the higher potential of bacteria to biodegrade PACs in secondary effluents. B. subtilis has the potential for biodegradation of PACs in the secondary effluents.

KEYWORDS:

Amoxicillin; B. subtilis; Bioactivity; Cephalexin; Degradation pathway

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