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Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2019 Mar 2;90:134-141. doi: 10.1016/j.pnpbp.2018.11.012. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Significantly lower serum and hair magnesium levels in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder than controls: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Author information

1
Department of Psychiatry, Kaohsiung Municipal Kai-Syuan Psychiatric Hospital, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan; Graduate Institute of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Taiwan.
2
Department of Internal Medicine, E-Da Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.
3
Graduate Institute of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Taiwan; Department of Addiction Science, Kaohsiung Municipal Kai-Syuan Psychiatric Hospital, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan.
4
Department of Psychiatry, Tsyr-Huey Mental Hospital, Kaohsiung, Jen-Ai's Home, Taiwan.
5
Department of Psychiatry, Tri-Service General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; Institute of Brain Science, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan; School of Medicine, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan.
6
Department of Child Psychiatry, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Taoyuan and Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan.
7
Department of Pediatrics, Da-An Women and Children Hospital, Tainan, Taiwan.
8
Department of Psychiatry, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; Center for Translational Research in Biomedical Sciences, Kaohsiung Chang Gung, Taiwan.
9
Prospect Clinic for Otorhinolaryngology & Neurology, Taiwan.
10
WinShine Clinics in the Specialty of Psychiatry, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan. Electronic address: ducktseng@gmail.com.
11
Department of Psychiatry, Kaohsiung Municipal Kai-Syuan Psychiatric Hospital, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan; Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Electronic address: chua.lin@msa.hinet.net.

Abstract

The pathophysiology of attention deficient hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is still obscure. Some studies have discussed that magnesium levels are lower in the serum and erythrocytes of children with ADHD. However, these findings are controversial. The aim of our study is to identify whether magnesium levels are in fact lower in children with ADHD. We conducted a thorough search of the literature and examined the connection between magnesium insufficiency and ADHD. A total of twelve studies were included into the current meta-analysis. The results of our meta-analysis found that peripheral blood magnesium levels, either in plasma, serum, or whole blood, of children diagnosed with ADHD were significantly lower than those in controls (k = 8, Hedges' g = -0.547, 95% CI = -0.818 to -0.276, p < .001). The subgroup meta-analysis with serum sample sources also suggested that peripheral serum magnesium levels of children diagnosed with ADHD were significantly lower than those in controls (k = 6, Hedges' g = -0.733, 95% CI = -0.911 to -0.555, p < .001). The subgroup meta-analysis focusing on subjects with ADHD diagnosed by definite diagnostic criteria also suggested significantly lower peripheral serum magnesium levels in ADHD children than those in controls (k = 4, Hedges' g = -0.780, 95% CI = -0.985 to -0.574, p < .001). We also noted that magnesium levels in the hair of children diagnosed with ADHD were significantly lower than those in controls (k = 4, Hedges' g = -0.713, 95% CI = -1.359 to -0.067, p = .031). In this meta-analysis, we found that children diagnosed with ADHD have lower serum and hair magnesium levels than children without ADHD. Further study may be needed to investigate the behavioral influence on ADHD due to lower magnesium levels, the association between brain and serum magnesium levels, and the effects brought about by larger longitudinal cohort studies.

KEYWORDS:

ADHD; Magnesium; Meta-analysis; Nutrition; Trace element

PMID:
30496768
DOI:
10.1016/j.pnpbp.2018.11.012
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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