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Brain. 2019 Jan 1;142(1):163-175. doi: 10.1093/brain/awy289.

Apolipoprotein E4 genotype compromises brain exosome production.

Author information

1
Department of Neurology, New York University Langone Health, New York, NY, USA.
2
Center for Dementia Research, Nathan S. Kline Institute, Orangeburg, New York, USA.
3
Department of Psychiatry, New York University Langone Health, New York, NY, USA.
4
Division of Neurochemistry, Nathan S. Kline Institute, Orangeburg, New York, USA.
5
Division of Analytical Psychopharmacology, Nathan S. Kline Institute, Orangeburg, New York, USA.
6
NYU Neuroscience Institute, New York University Langone Health, New York, NY, USA.
7
Department of Neuroscience and Physiology, New York University Langone Health, New York, NY, USA.
8
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, New York University Langone Health, New York, NY, USA.

Abstract

In addition to being the greatest genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease, expression of the ɛ4 allele of apolipoprotein E can lead to cognitive decline during ageing that is independent of Alzheimer's amyloid-β and tau pathology. In human post-mortem tissue and mouse models humanized for apolipoprotein E, we examined the impact of apolipoprotein E4 expression on brain exosomes, vesicles that are produced within and secreted from late-endocytic multivesicular bodies. Compared to humans or mice homozygous for the risk-neutral ɛ3 allele we show that the ɛ4 allele, whether homozygous or heterozygous with an ɛ3 allele, drives lower exosome levels in the brain extracellular space. In mice, we show that the apolipoprotein E4-driven change in brain exosome levels is age-dependent: while not present at age 6 months, it is detectable at 12 months of age. Expression levels of the exosome pathway regulators tumor susceptibility gene 101 (TSG101) and Ras-related protein Rab35 (RAB35) were found to be reduced in the brain at the protein and mRNA levels, arguing that apolipoprotein E4 genotype leads to a downregulation of exosome biosynthesis and release. Compromised exosome production is likely to have adverse effects, including diminishing a cell's ability to eliminate materials from the endosomal-lysosomal system. This reduction in brain exosome levels in 12-month-old apolipoprotein E4 mice occurs earlier than our previously reported brain endosomal pathway changes, arguing that an apolipoprotein E4-driven failure in exosome production plays a primary role in endosomal and lysosomal deficits that occur in apolipoprotein E4 mouse and human brains. Disruption of these interdependent endosomal-exosomal-lysosomal systems in apolipoprotein E4-expressing individuals may contribute to amyloidogenic amyloid-β precursor protein processing, compromise trophic signalling and synaptic function, and interfere with a neuron's ability to degrade material, all of which are events that lead to neuronal vulnerability and higher risk of Alzheimer's disease development. Together, these data suggest that exosome pathway dysfunction is a previously unappreciated component of the brain pathologies that occur as a result of apolipoprotein E4 expression.

PMID:
30496349
PMCID:
PMC6308312
DOI:
10.1093/brain/awy289
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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