Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Lancet. 2018 Nov 10;392(10159):1789-1858. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(18)32279-7. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 354 diseases and injuries for 195 countries and territories, 1990-2017: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017.

Collaborators (988)

James SL, Abate D, Abate KH, Abay SM, Abbafati C, Abbasi N, Abbastabar H, Abd-Allah F, Abdela J, Abdelalim A, Abdollahpour I, Abdulkader RS, Abebe Z, Abera SF, Abil OZ, Abraha HN, Abu-Raddad LJ, Abu-Rmeileh NME, Accrombessi MMK, Acharya D, Acharya P, Ackerman IN, Adamu AA, Adebayo OM, Adekanmbi V, Adetokunboh OO, Adib MG, Adsuar JC, Afanvi KA, Afarideh M, Afshin A, Agarwal G, Agesa KM, Aggarwal R, Aghayan SA, Agrawal S, Ahmadi A, Ahmadi M, Ahmadieh H, Ahmed MB, Aichour AN, Aichour I, Aichour MTE, Akinyemiju T, Akseer N, Al-Aly Z, Al-Eyadhy A, Al-Mekhlafi HM, Al-Raddadi RM, Alahdab F, Alam K, Alam T, Alashi A, Alavian SM, Alene KA, Alijanzadeh M, Alizadeh-Navaei R, Aljunid SM, Alkerwi A, Alla F, Allebeck P, Alouani MML, Altirkawi K, Alvis-Guzman N, Amare AT, Aminde LN, Ammar W, Amoako YA, Anber NH, Andrei CL, Androudi S, Animut MD, Anjomshoa M, Ansha MG, Antonio CAT, Anwari P, Arabloo J, Arauz A, Aremu O, Ariani F, Armoon B, Ärnlöv J, Arora A, Artaman A, Aryal KK, Asayesh H, Asghar RJ, Ataro Z, Atre SR, Ausloos M, Avila-Burgos L, Avokpaho EFGA, Awasthi A, Ayala Quintanilla BP, Ayer R, Azzopardi PS, Babazadeh A, Badali H, Badawi A, Bali AG, Ballesteros KE, Ballew SH, Banach M, Banoub JAM, Banstola A, Barac A, Barboza MA, Barker-Collo SL, Bärnighausen TW, Barrero LH, Baune BT, Bazargan-Hejazi S, Bedi N, Beghi E, Behzadifar M, Behzadifar M, Béjot Y, Belachew AB, Belay YA, Bell ML, Bello AK, Bensenor IM, Bernabe E, Bernstein RS, Beuran M, Beyranvand T, Bhala N, Bhattarai S, Bhaumik S, Bhutta ZA, Biadgo B, Bijani A, Bikbov B, Bilano V, Bililign N, Bin Sayeed MS, Bisanzio D, Blacker BF, Blyth FM, Bou-Orm IR, Boufous S, Bourne R, Brady OJ, Brainin M, Brant LC, Brazinova A, Breitborde NJK, Brenner H, Briant PS, Briggs AM, Briko AN, Britton G, Brugha T, Buchbinder R, Busse R, Butt ZA, Cahuana-Hurtado L, Cano J, Cárdenas R, Carrero JJ, Carter A, Carvalho F, Castañeda-Orjuela CA, Castillo Rivas J, Castro F, Catalá-López F, Cercy KM, Cerin E, Chaiah Y, Chang AR, Chang HY, Chang JC, Charlson FJ, Chattopadhyay A, Chattu VK, Chaturvedi P, Chiang PP, Chin KL, Chitheer A, Choi JJ, Chowdhury R, Christensen H, Christopher DJ, Cicuttini FM, Ciobanu LG, Cirillo M, Claro RM, Collado-Mateo D, Cooper C, Coresh J, Cortesi PA, Cortinovis M, Costa M, Cousin E, Criqui MH, Cromwell EA, Cross M, Crump JA, Dadi AF, Dandona L, Dandona R, Dargan PI, Daryani A, Das Gupta R, Das Neves J, Dasa TT, Davey G, Davis AC, Davitoiu DV, De Courten B, De La Hoz FP, De Leo D, De Neve JW, Degefa MG, Degenhardt L, Deiparine S, Dellavalle RP, Demoz GT, Deribe K, Dervenis N, Des Jarlais DC, Dessie GA, Dey S, Dharmaratne SD, Dinberu MT, Dirac MA, Djalalinia S, Doan L, Dokova K, Doku DT, Dorsey ER, Doyle KE, Driscoll TR, Dubey M, Dubljanin E, Duken EE, Duncan BB, Duraes AR, Ebrahimi H, Ebrahimpour S, Echko MM, Edvardsson D, Effiong A, Ehrlich JR, El Bcheraoui C, El Sayed Zaki M, El-Khatib Z, Elkout H, Elyazar IRF, Enayati A, Endries AY, Er B, Erskine HE, Eshrati B, Eskandarieh S, Esteghamati A, Esteghamati S, Fakhim H, Fallah Omrani V, Faramarzi M, Fareed M, Farhadi F, Farid TA, Farinha CSES, Farioli A, Faro A, Farvid MS, Farzadfar F, Feigin VL, Fentahun N, Fereshtehnejad SM, Fernandes E, Fernandes JC, Ferrari AJ, Feyissa GT, Filip I, Fischer F, Fitzmaurice C, Foigt NA, Foreman KJ, Fox J, Frank TD, Fukumoto T, Fullman N, Fürst T, Furtado JM, Futran ND, Gall S, Ganji M, Gankpe FG, Garcia-Basteiro AL, Gardner WM, Gebre AK, Gebremedhin AT, Gebremichael TG, Gelano TF, Geleijnse JM, Genova-Maleras R, Geramo YCD, Gething PW, Gezae KE, Ghadiri K, Ghasemi Falavarjani K, Ghasemi-Kasman M, Ghimire M, Ghosh R, Ghoshal AG, Giampaoli S, Gill PS, Gill TK, Ginawi IA, Giussani G, Gnedovskaya EV, Goldberg EM, Goli S, Gómez-Dantés H, Gona PN, Gopalani SV, Gorman TM, Goulart AC, Goulart BNG, Grada A, Grams ME, Grosso G, Gugnani HC, Guo Y, Gupta PC, Gupta R, Gupta R, Gupta T, Gyawali B, Haagsma JA, Hachinski V, Hafezi-Nejad N, Haghparast Bidgoli H, Hagos TB, Hailu GB, Haj-Mirzaian A, Haj-Mirzaian A, Hamadeh RR, Hamidi S, Handal AJ, Hankey GJ, Hao Y, Harb HL, Harikrishnan S, Haro JM, Hasan M, Hassankhani H, Hassen HY, Havmoeller R, Hawley CN, Hay RJ, Hay SI, Hedayatizadeh-Omran A, Heibati B, Hendrie D, Henok A, Herteliu C, Heydarpour S, Hibstu DT, Hoang HT, Hoek HW, Hoffman HJ, Hole MK, Homaie Rad E, Hoogar P, Hosgood HD, Hosseini SM, Hosseinzadeh M, Hostiuc M, Hostiuc S, Hotez PJ, Hoy DG, Hsairi M, Htet AS, Hu G, Huang JJ, Huynh CK, Iburg KM, Ikeda CT, Ileanu B, Ilesanmi OS, Iqbal U, Irvani SSN, Irvine CMS, Islam SMS, Islami F, Jacobsen KH, Jahangiry L, Jahanmehr N, Jain SK, Jakovljevic M, Javanbakht M, Jayatilleke AU, Jeemon P, Jha RP, Jha V, Ji JS, Johnson CO, Jonas JB, Jozwiak JJ, Jungari SB, Jürisson M, Kabir Z, Kadel R, Kahsay A, Kalani R, Kanchan T, Karami M, Karami Matin B, Karch A, Karema C, Karimi N, Karimi SM, Kasaeian A, Kassa DH, Kassa GM, Kassa TD, Kassebaum NJ, Katikireddi SV, Kawakami N, Karyani AK, Keighobadi MM, Keiyoro PN, Kemmer L, Kemp GR, Kengne AP, Keren A, Khader YS, Khafaei B, Khafaie MA, Khajavi A, Khalil IA, Khan EA, Khan MS, Khan MA, Khang YH, Khazaei M, Khoja AT, Khosravi A, Khosravi MH, Kiadaliri AA, Kiirithio DN, Kim CI, Kim D, Kim P, Kim YE, Kim YJ, Kimokoti RW, Kinfu Y, Kisa A, Kissimova-Skarbek K, Kivimäki M, Knudsen AKS, Kocarnik JM, Kochhar S, Kokubo Y, Kolola T, Kopec JA, Kosen S, Kotsakis GA, Koul PA, Koyanagi A, Kravchenko MA, Krishan K, Krohn KJ, Kuate Defo B, Kucuk Bicer B, Kumar GA, Kumar M, Kyu HH, Lad DP, Lad SD, Lafranconi A, Lalloo R, Lallukka T, Lami FH, Lansingh VC, Latifi A, Lau KM, Lazarus JV, Leasher JL, Ledesma JR, Lee PH, Leigh J, Leung J, Levi M, Lewycka S, Li S, Li Y, Liao Y, Liben ML, Lim LL, Lim SS, Liu S, Lodha R, Looker KJ, Lopez AD, Lorkowski S, Lotufo PA, Low N, Lozano R, Lucas TCD, Lucchesi LR, Lunevicius R, Lyons RA, Ma S, Macarayan ERK, Mackay MT, Madotto F, Magdy Abd El Razek H, Magdy Abd El Razek M, Maghavani DP, Mahotra NB, Mai HT, Majdan M, Majdzadeh R, Majeed A, Malekzadeh R, Malta DC, Mamun AA, Manda AL, Manguerra H, Manhertz T, Mansournia MA, Mantovani LG, Mapoma CC, Maravilla JC, Marcenes W, Marks A, Martins-Melo FR, Martopullo I, März W, Marzan MB, Mashamba-Thompson TP, Massenburg BB, Mathur MR, Matsushita K, Maulik PK, Mazidi M, McAlinden C, McGrath JJ, McKee M, Mehndiratta MM, Mehrotra R, Mehta KM, Mehta V, Mejia-Rodriguez F, Mekonen T, Melese A, Melku M, Meltzer M, Memiah PTN, Memish ZA, Mendoza W, Mengistu DT, Mengistu G, Mensah GA, Mereta ST, Meretoja A, Meretoja TJ, Mestrovic T, Mezerji NMG, Miazgowski B, Miazgowski T, Millear AI, Miller TR, Miltz B, Mini GK, Mirarefin M, Mirrakhimov EM, Misganaw AT, Mitchell PB, Mitiku H, Moazen B, Mohajer B, Mohammad KA, Mohammadifard N, Mohammadnia-Afrouzi M, Mohammed MA, Mohammed S, Mohebi F, Moitra M, Mokdad AH, Molokhia M, Monasta L, Moodley Y, Moosazadeh M, Moradi G, Moradi-Lakeh M, Moradinazar M, Moraga P, Morawska L, Moreno Velásquez I, Morgado-Da-Costa J, Morrison SD, Moschos MM, Mousavi SM, Mruts KB, Muche AA, Muchie KF, Mueller UO, Muhammed OS, Mukhopadhyay S, Muller K, Mumford JE, Murhekar M, Musa J, Musa KI, Mustafa G, Nabhan AF, Nagata C, Naghavi M, Naheed A, Nahvijou A, Naik G, Naik N, Najafi F, Naldi L, Nam HS, Nangia V, Nansseu JR, Nascimento BR, Natarajan G, Neamati N, Negoi I, Negoi RI, Neupane S, Newton CRJ, Ngunjiri JW, Nguyen AQ, Nguyen HT, Nguyen HLT, Nguyen HT, Nguyen LH, Nguyen M, Nguyen NB, Nguyen SH, Nichols E, Ningrum DNA, Nixon MR, Nolutshungu N, Nomura S, Norheim OF, Noroozi M, Norrving B, Noubiap JJ, Nouri HR, Nourollahpour Shiadeh M, Nowroozi MR, Nsoesie EO, Nyasulu PS, Odell CM, Ofori-Asenso R, Ogbo FA, Oh IH, Oladimeji O, Olagunju AT, Olagunju TO, Olivares PR, Olsen HE, Olusanya BO, Ong KL, Ong SK, Oren E, Ortiz A, Ota E, Otstavnov SS, Øverland S, Owolabi MO, P A M, Pacella R, Pakpour AH, Pana A, Panda-Jonas S, Parisi A, Park EK, Parry CDH, Patel S, Pati S, Patil ST, Patle A, Patton GC, Paturi VR, Paulson KR, Pearce N, Pereira DM, Perico N, Pesudovs K, Pham HQ, Phillips MR, Pigott DM, Pillay JD, Piradov MA, Pirsaheb M, Pishgar F, Plana-Ripoll O, Plass D, Polinder S, Popova S, Postma MJ, Pourshams A, Poustchi H, Prabhakaran D, Prakash S, Prakash V, Purcell CA, Purwar MB, Qorbani M, Quistberg DA, Radfar A, Rafay A, Rafiei A, Rahim F, Rahimi K, Rahimi-Movaghar A, Rahimi-Movaghar V, Rahman M, Rahman MHU, Rahman MA, Rahman SU, Rai RK, Rajati F, Ram U, Ranjan P, Ranta A, Rao PC, Rawaf DL, Rawaf S, Reddy KS, Reiner RC, Reinig N, Reitsma MB, Remuzzi G, Renzaho AMN, Resnikoff S, Rezaei S, Rezai MS, Ribeiro ALP, Robinson SR, Roever L, Ronfani L, Roshandel G, Rostami A, Roth GA, Roy A, Rubagotti E, Sachdev PS, Sadat N, Saddik B, Sadeghi E, Saeedi Moghaddam S, Safari H, Safari Y, Safari-Faramani R, Safdarian M, Safi S, Safiri S, Sagar R, Sahebkar A, Sahraian MA, Sajadi HS, Salam N, Salama JS, Salamati P, Saleem K, Saleem Z, Salimi Y, Salomon JA, Salvi SS, Salz I, Samy AM, Sanabria J, Sang Y, Santomauro DF, Santos IS, Santos JV, Santric Milicevic MM, Sao Jose BP, Sardana M, Sarker AR, Sarrafzadegan N, Sartorius B, Sarvi S, Sathian B, Satpathy M, Sawant AR, Sawhney M, Saxena S, Saylan M, Schaeffner E, Schmidt MI, Schneider IJC, Schöttker B, Schwebel DC, Schwendicke F, Scott JG, Sekerija M, Sepanlou SG, Serván-Mori E, Seyedmousavi S, Shabaninejad H, Shafieesabet A, Shahbazi M, Shaheen AA, Shaikh MA, Shams-Beyranvand M, Shamsi M, Shamsizadeh M, Sharafi H, Sharafi K, Sharif M, Sharif-Alhoseini M, Sharma M, Sharma R, She J, Sheikh A, Shi P, Shibuya K, Shigematsu M, Shiri R, Shirkoohi R, Shishani K, Shiue I, Shokraneh F, Shoman H, Shrime MG, Si S, Siabani S, Siddiqi TJ, Sigfusdottir ID, Sigurvinsdottir R, Silva JP, Silveira DGA, Singam NSV, Singh JA, Singh NP, Singh V, Sinha DN, Skiadaresi E, Slepak ELN, Sliwa K, Smith DL, Smith M, Soares Filho AM, Sobaih BH, Sobhani S, Sobngwi E, Soneji SS, Soofi M, Soosaraei M, Sorensen RJD, Soriano JB, Soyiri IN, Sposato LA, Sreeramareddy CT, Srinivasan V, Stanaway JD, Stein DJ, Steiner C, Steiner TJ, Stokes MA, Stovner LJ, Subart ML, Sudaryanto A, Sufiyan MB, Sunguya BF, Sur PJ, Sutradhar I, Sykes BL, Sylte DO, Tabarés-Seisdedos R, Tadakamadla SK, Tadesse BT, Tandon N, Tassew SG, Tavakkoli M, Taveira N, Taylor HR, Tehrani-Banihashemi A, Tekalign TG, Tekelemedhin SW, Tekle MG, Temesgen H, Temsah MH, Temsah O, Terkawi AS, Teweldemedhin M, Thankappan KR, Thomas N, Tilahun B, To QG, Tonelli M, Topor-Madry R, Topouzis F, Torre AE, Tortajada-Girbés M, Touvier M, Tovani-Palone MR, Towbin JA, Tran BX, Tran KB, Troeger CE, Truelsen TC, Tsilimbaris MK, Tsoi D, Tudor Car L, Tuzcu EM, Ukwaja KN, Ullah I, Undurraga EA, Unutzer J, Updike RL, Usman MS, Uthman OA, Vaduganathan M, Vaezi A, Valdez PR, Varughese S, Vasankari TJ, Venketasubramanian N, Villafaina S, Violante FS, Vladimirov SK, Vlassov V, Vollset SE, Vosoughi K, Vujcic IS, Wagnew FS, Waheed Y, Waller SG, Wang Y, Wang YP, Weiderpass E, Weintraub RG, Weiss DJ, Weldegebreal F, Weldegwergs KG, Werdecker A, West TE, Whiteford HA, Widecka J, Wijeratne T, Wilner LB, Wilson S, Winkler AS, Wiyeh AB, Wiysonge CS, Wolfe CDA, Woolf AD, Wu S, Wu YC, Wyper GMA, Xavier D, Xu G, Yadgir S, Yadollahpour A, Yahyazadeh Jabbari SH, Yamada T, Yan LL, Yano Y, Yaseri M, Yasin YJ, Yeshaneh A, Yimer EM, Yip P, Yisma E, Yonemoto N, Yoon SJ, Yotebieng M, Younis MZ, Yousefifard M, Yu C, Zadnik V, Zaidi Z, Zaman SB, Zamani M, Zare Z, Zeleke AJ, Zenebe ZM, Zhang K, Zhao Z, Zhou M, Zodpey S, Zucker I, Vos T, Murray CJL.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2017 (GBD 2017) includes a comprehensive assessment of incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability (YLDs) for 354 causes in 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2017. Previous GBD studies have shown how the decline of mortality rates from 1990 to 2016 has led to an increase in life expectancy, an ageing global population, and an expansion of the non-fatal burden of disease and injury. These studies have also shown how a substantial portion of the world's population experiences non-fatal health loss with considerable heterogeneity among different causes, locations, ages, and sexes. Ongoing objectives of the GBD study include increasing the level of estimation detail, improving analytical strategies, and increasing the amount of high-quality data.

METHODS:

We estimated incidence and prevalence for 354 diseases and injuries and 3484 sequelae. We used an updated and extensive body of literature studies, survey data, surveillance data, inpatient admission records, outpatient visit records, and health insurance claims, and additionally used results from cause of death models to inform estimates using a total of 68 781 data sources. Newly available clinical data from India, Iran, Japan, Jordan, Nepal, China, Brazil, Norway, and Italy were incorporated, as well as updated claims data from the USA and new claims data from Taiwan (province of China) and Singapore. We used DisMod-MR 2.1, a Bayesian meta-regression tool, as the main method of estimation, ensuring consistency between rates of incidence, prevalence, remission, and cause of death for each condition. YLDs were estimated as the product of a prevalence estimate and a disability weight for health states of each mutually exclusive sequela, adjusted for comorbidity. We updated the Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a summary development indicator of income per capita, years of schooling, and total fertility rate. Additionally, we calculated differences between male and female YLDs to identify divergent trends across sexes. GBD 2017 complies with the Guidelines for Accurate and Transparent Health Estimates Reporting.

FINDINGS:

Globally, for females, the causes with the greatest age-standardised prevalence were oral disorders, headache disorders, and haemoglobinopathies and haemolytic anaemias in both 1990 and 2017. For males, the causes with the greatest age-standardised prevalence were oral disorders, headache disorders, and tuberculosis including latent tuberculosis infection in both 1990 and 2017. In terms of YLDs, low back pain, headache disorders, and dietary iron deficiency were the leading Level 3 causes of YLD counts in 1990, whereas low back pain, headache disorders, and depressive disorders were the leading causes in 2017 for both sexes combined. All-cause age-standardised YLD rates decreased by 3·9% (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 3·1-4·6) from 1990 to 2017; however, the all-age YLD rate increased by 7·2% (6·0-8·4) while the total sum of global YLDs increased from 562 million (421-723) to 853 million (642-1100). The increases for males and females were similar, with increases in all-age YLD rates of 7·9% (6·6-9·2) for males and 6·5% (5·4-7·7) for females. We found significant differences between males and females in terms of age-standardised prevalence estimates for multiple causes. The causes with the greatest relative differences between sexes in 2017 included substance use disorders (3018 cases [95% UI 2782-3252] per 100 000 in males vs s1400 [1279-1524] per 100 000 in females), transport injuries (3322 [3082-3583] vs 2336 [2154-2535]), and self-harm and interpersonal violence (3265 [2943-3630] vs 5643 [5057-6302]).

INTERPRETATION:

Global all-cause age-standardised YLD rates have improved only slightly over a period spanning nearly three decades. However, the magnitude of the non-fatal disease burden has expanded globally, with increasing numbers of people who have a wide spectrum of conditions. A subset of conditions has remained globally pervasive since 1990, whereas other conditions have displayed more dynamic trends, with different ages, sexes, and geographies across the globe experiencing varying burdens and trends of health loss. This study emphasises how global improvements in premature mortality for select conditions have led to older populations with complex and potentially expensive diseases, yet also highlights global achievements in certain domains of disease and injury.

FUNDING:

Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

PMID:
30496104
DOI:
10.1016/S0140-6736(18)32279-7
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center