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Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2019 Apr;20(4):350-356. doi: 10.1097/PCC.0000000000001807.

Avoiding Furosemide Ototoxicity Associated With Single-Ventricle Repair in Young Infants.

Author information

1
Department of Pediatrics, Division of Developmental Pediatrics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada.
2
Department of Pediatrics, Division of Developmental Pediatrics, Glenrose Rehabilitation Hospital, Edmonton, AB, Canada.
3
Department of Audiology, Glenrose Rehabilitation Hospital, Edmonton, AB, Canada.
4
Department of Pharmacy, Stollery Children's Hospital, Edmonton, AB, Canada.
5
Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Stollery Children's Hospital and University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada.
6
Department of Pediatrics, Section of Neonatology, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada.
7
School of Public Health, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada.
8
Department of Surgery, Stollery Children's Hospital, Edmonton, AB, Canada.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To reduce bilateral delayed-onset progressive sensory permanent hearing loss using a systems-wide quality improvement project with adherence to best practice for the administration of furosemide.

DESIGN:

Prospective cohort study with regular audiologic follow-up assessment of survivors both before and after a 2007-2008 quality improvement practice change.

SETTING:

The referral center in Western Canada for complex cardiac surgery, with comprehensive multidisciplinary follow-up by the Complex Pediatric Therapies Follow-up Program.

PATIENTS:

All consecutive patients having single-ventricle palliative cardiac surgery at age 6 weeks old or younger.

INTERVENTIONS:

A 2007-2008 quality improvement practice change consisted of a Parenteral Drug Monograph revision indicating slow IV administration of furosemide, an educational program, and an evaluation.

MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:

The outcome measure was the prevalence of permanent hearing loss by 4 years old. Firth multiple logistic regression compared pre (1996-2008) to post (2008-2012) practice change occurrence of permanent hearing loss, adjusting for confounding variables, including all hospital days, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, cardiopulmonary bypass time, age at first surgery, dialysis, and sepsis. From 1996 to 2012, 259 infants had single-ventricle palliative surgery at age 6 weeks old or younger, with 173 (64%) surviving to age 4 years. Of survivors, 106 (61%) were male, age at surgery was 11.6 days (9.0 d), and total hospitalization days by age 4 years were 64 (42); 18 (10%) had cardiopulmonary resuscitation and 38 (22%) had sepsis at any time. All 173 (100%) had 4-year follow-up. Pre- to postpractice change permanent hearing loss dropped from 17/100 (17%) to 0/73 (0%) of survivors. On Firth multiple logistic regression, the only variable statistically associated with permanent hearing loss was the pre- to postpractice change time period (odds ratio, 0.03; 95% CI, 0-0.35; p = 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS:

A practice change to ensure slow IV administration of furosemide eliminated permanent hearing loss. Centers caring for critically ill infants, particularly those with single-ventricle anatomy or hypoxia, should review their drug administration guidelines and adhere to best practice for administration of IV furosemide.

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