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Front Psychol. 2018 Nov 12;9:2105. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2018.02105. eCollection 2018.

Measuring Burnout Among University Students: Factorial Validity, Invariance, and Latent Profiles of the Italian Version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory Student Survey (MBI-SS).

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Dipartimento di Scienze Mediche e Sanità Pubblica, Università degli Studi di Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy.
School of Psychology, Deakin University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.
Department of Psychology, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, United States.
Department of Public Health, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, Netherlands.


Burnout has a long tradition of studies in the workplace and recently researchers suggested burnout is also rising among university students. The Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) is considered a valid measure of burnout. However, the student version of the MBI (MBI-SS) has received limited empirical support. The aim of this paper is to analyze the factorial validity, invariance, and latent profiles of the Italian version of the MBI-SS in a sample university students. A total of 7757 Italian university students participated in an online cross-sectional survey. Results from explorative and confirmatory factor analyses showed acceptable fits for the Italian version of the MBI-SS. In addition, multigroup analyses supported full-metric invariance of MBI-SS within gender and academic level (bachelor vs. master). Finally, results from latent profile analysis showed that a three latent profile model was the better solution for the data: (a) burned-out (high levels of exhaustion, cynicism (CY), and low professional efficacy (PE); n = 2665, 34.2%); (b) overextended (high levels of exhaustion, moderate other, n = 3953, 51.0%); and (c) engaged (moderate exhaustion, low CY, and high PE, n = 1149, 14.8%). The resulting three-profile solution in the present study partially agrees with a prior study as it replicated three of the five-profile solution identified. In sum, we suggest that the MBI-SS is valid and reliable and represents a robust instrument for the measurement of burnout among Italian speaking university students.


Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Survey; factorial validity; invariance; latent profiles; student burnout

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