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Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2019 Mar;28(3):578-583. doi: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-18-0520. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Selenium and Sex Steroid Hormones in a U.S. Nationally Representative Sample of Men: A Role for the Link between Selenium and Estradiol in Prostate Carcinogenesis?

Author information

1
King's College London, School of Cancer and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Translational Oncology and Urology Research (TOUR), London, United Kingdom. sabine.rohrmann@ifspm.uzh.ch mieke.vanhemelrijck@kcl.ac.uk.
2
King's College London, School of Cancer and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Translational Oncology and Urology Research (TOUR), London, United Kingdom.
3
Department of Environmental Health and Engineering, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland.
4
Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.
5
Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland.
6
Department of Chronic Disease Epidemiology, Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Prevention Institute (EBPI), University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland. sabine.rohrmann@ifspm.uzh.ch mieke.vanhemelrijck@kcl.ac.uk.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Given the recent findings from pooled studies about a potential inverse association between selenium levels and prostate cancer risk, this cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the association between serum selenium and serum concentrations of sex steroid hormones including estradiol in a nationally representative sample of U.S. men to investigate one mechanism by which selenium may influence prostate cancer risk.

METHODS:

The study included 1,420 men ages 20 years or older who participated in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 1988 and 1994. We calculated age/race-ethnicity-adjusted and multivariable-adjusted geometric mean serum concentrations of total and estimated free testosterone and estradiol, androstanediol glucuronide, and sex hormone binding globulin, and compared them across quartiles of serum selenium.

RESULTS:

Adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, smoking status, serum cotinine, household income, physical activity, alcohol consumption, and percent body fat, mean total estradiol [e.g., Q1, 38.00 pg/mL (95% confidence interval (CI), 36.03-40.08) vs. Q4, 35.29 pg/mL (95% CI, 33.53-37.14); P trend = 0.050] and free estradiol [e.g., Q1, 0.96 pg/mL (95% CI, 0.92-1.01) vs. Q4, 0.90 (95% CI, 0.85-0.95); P trend = 0.065] concentrations decreased over quartiles of selenium. Stratification by smoking and alcohol consumption, showed that the latter observation was stronger for never smokers (P interaction = 0.073) and those with limited alcohol intake (P interaction = 0.017). No associations were observed for the other sex steroid hormones studied.

CONCLUSIONS:

Our findings suggests that a possible mechanism by which selenium may be protective for prostate cancer is related to estrogen.

IMPACT:

Further studies of longitudinal measurements of serum and toenail selenium in relation to serum measurements of sex steroid hormones are needed.

PMID:
30482876
PMCID:
PMC6401291
[Available on 2020-03-01]
DOI:
10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-18-0520

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