Format

Send to

Choose Destination
PLoS One. 2018 Nov 27;13(11):e0207915. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0207915. eCollection 2018.

Comparison of the antifibrotic effects of the pan-histone deacetylase-inhibitor panobinostat versus the IPF-drug pirfenidone in fibroblasts from patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

Author information

1
Department of Internal Medicine, Justus-Liebig-University Giessen, Giessen, Germany.
2
Universities of Giessen and Marburg Lung Center (UGMLC), Member of the German Center for Lung Research (DZL), Giessen, Germany.
3
Excellence Cluster Cardio-Pulmonary System (ECCPS), Giessen, Germany.
4
Department of Medicine, Section of Pulmonary Diseases, Critical Care and Environmental Medicine, Tulane University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, Louisiana, United States of America.
5
Department of Thoracic Surgery, Vienna General Hospital, Vienna, Austria.
6
European IPF Network and European IPF Registry, Giessen, Germany.
7
Institute of Pathology and Cytology, Wetzlar, Germany.
8
Max-Planck-Institute for Heart and Lung Research, Department of Lung Development and Remodeling, Bad Nauheim, Germany.
9
Department of Toxicology, University Medical Center, Mainz, Germany.
10
Agaplesion Lung Clinic Waldhof Elgershausen, Greifenstein, Germany.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a devastating lung disease with a poor prognosis. Pirfenidone is the first antifibrotic agent to be approved for IPF-treatment as it is able to slow down disease progression. However, there is no curative treatment other than lung transplantation. Because epigenetic alterations are associated with IPF, histone deacetylase (HDAC)-inhibitors have recently been proven to attenuate fibrotic remodeling in vitro and in vivo. This study compared the effects of pirfenidone with the pan-HDAC-inhibitor panobinostat/LBH589, a FDA-approved drug for the treatment of multiple myeloma, head-to-head on survival, fibrotic activity and proliferation of primary IPF-fibroblasts in vitro.

METHODS:

Primary fibroblasts from six IPF-patients were incubated for 24h with vehicle (0.25% DMSO), panobinostat (LBH589, 85 nM) or pirfenidone (2.7 mM), followed by assessment of proliferation and expression analyses for profibrotic and anti-apoptosis genes, as well as for ER stress and apoptosis-markers. In addition, the expression status of all HDAC enzymes was examined.

RESULTS:

Treatment of IPF-fibroblasts with panobinostat or pirfenidone resulted in a downregulated expression of various extracellular matrix (ECM)-associated genes, as compared to vehicle-treated cells. In agreement, both drugs decreased protein level of phosphorylated (p)-STAT3, a transcription factor mediating profibrotic responses, in treated IPF-fibroblasts. Further, an increase in histone acetylation was observed in response to both treatments, but was much more pronounced and excessive in panobinostat-treated IPF-fibroblasts. Panobinostat, but not pirfenidone, led to a significant suppression of proliferation in IPF-fibroblasts, as indicated by WST1- and BrdU assay and markedly diminished levels of cyclin-D1 and p-histone H3. Furthermore, panobinostat-treatment enhanced α-tubulin-acetylation, decreased the expression of survival-related genes Bcl-XL and BIRC5/survivin, and was associated with induction of ER stress and apoptosis in IPF-fibroblasts. In contrast, pirfenidone-treatment maintained Bcl-XL expression, and was neither associated with ER stress-induction nor any apoptotic signaling. Pirfenidone also led to increased expression of HDAC6 and sirtuin-2, and enhanced α-tubulin-deacetylation. But in line with its ability to increase histone acetylation, pirfenidone reduced the expression of HDAC enzymes HDAC1, -2 and -9.

CONCLUSIONS:

We conclude that, beside other antifibrotic mechanisms, pirfenidone reduces profibrotic signaling also through STAT3 inactivation and weak epigenetic alterations in IPF-fibroblasts, and permits survival of (altered) fibroblasts. The pan-HDAC-inhibitor panobinostat reduces profibrotic phenotypes while inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in IPF-fibroblasts, thus indicating more efficiency than pirfenidone in inactivating IPF-fibroblasts. We therefore believe that HDAC-inhibitors such as panobinostat can present a novel therapeutic strategy for IPF.

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Public Library of Science Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center