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J Cell Physiol. 2019 Jun;234(6):8550-8569. doi: 10.1002/jcp.27828. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

The possible role of bacteria, viruses, and parasites in initiation and exacerbation of irritable bowel syndrome.

Author information

1
Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
2
Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
3
Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
4
Health Promotion Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
5
Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Ardebil University of Medical Science, Ardebil, Iran.
6
Student Research Committee, Department of Food Sciences and Technology, Faculty of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.
7
Department of Pathobiology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Abstract

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a prolonged and disabling functional gastrointestinal disorder with the incidence rate of 18% in the world. IBS could seriously affect lifetime of patients and cause high economic burden on the community. The pathophysiology of the IBS is hardly understood, whereas several possible mechanisms, such as visceral hypersensitivity, irregular gut motility, abnormal brain-gut relations, and the role of infectious agents, are implicated in initiation and development of this syndrome. Different studies demonstrated an alteration in B-lymphocytes, mast cells (MC), T-lymphocytes, and cytokine concentrations in intestinal mucosa or systemic circulation that are likely to contribute to the formation of the IBS. Therefore, IBS could be developed in those with genetic predisposition. Infections' role in initiation and exacerbation of IBS has been investigated by quite several clinical studies; moreover, the possible role of some pathogens in development and exacerbation of this disease has been described. It appears that the main obligatory pathogens correspond with the IBS disease, Clostridium difficile, Escherichia coli, Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, Campylobacter concisus, Campylobacter jejuni, Chlamydia trachomatis, Helicobacter pylori, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella spp, Shigella spp, and viruses, particularly noroviruses. A number of pathogenic parasites (Blastocystis, Dientamoeba fragilis, and Giardia lamblia) may also be involved in the progression and exacerbation of the disease. Based on the current knowledge, the current study concludes that the most common bacterial, viral, and parasitic pathogens may be involved in the development and progression of IBS.

KEYWORDS:

bacterial infection disease; clinical microbiology; irritable bowel syndrome; parasites; viruses

PMID:
30480810
DOI:
10.1002/jcp.27828

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