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Health Promot Perspect. 2018 Oct 27;8(4):283-289. doi: 10.15171/hpp.2018.40. eCollection 2018.

Fruit and vegetable consumption among adults in Namibia: analysis of a nationally representative population.

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Faculty of Social Sciences, School of International Development and Global Studies, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada.
Institute of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Dhaka, Dhaka, Bangladesh.


Background: Prevalence of F&V consumption in Namibia is not known. In this study we aimed to address this gap by using nationally representative data with the objectives of measuring the prevalence of adequate F&V consumption among adult men and women and their socio demographic determinants. Methods: This study is based on data from Namibia Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS2013). Sample population were 14 185 men and women aged between 15 and 49 years.Amount of fruit and vegetable consumption was measured by self-reported frequencies and was defined as adequate (at least 5 servings/day) according to World Health Organization (WHO)guidelines. Results: Overall, only 4.3% (3.8-4.9%) of the men and women reported consuming at least 5 servings of F&V a day, with the percentage being slightly higher among women (4.8%,95% CI=3.7-6.2) compared with men (4.2%, 95% CI=3.6-4.8). In the multivariable analysis,education level and household wealth status appeared to be the only factors associated with adequate F&V intake. Men and women who had primary level education had higher odds of eating at least 5 servings of F&V a day compared with those who had no education. Regarding wealth status, men and women from non-poor households had respectively 2.13 times(OR=2.13, 95% CI=1.01-4.48) and 2.2 times (OR=2.19, 95% CI=1.56-3.38) higher odds of eating at least 5 servings of F&V a day. Conclusion: Only a small proportion of the men and women consumed adequate amount of F&V on daily basis. Having primary level education and non-poor household wealth status were positively associated with adequate amount of F&V intake.


Demographic and Health Survey; Fruit and vegetable consumption; Namibia; Socio-demographic factors

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