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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018 Dec 11;115(50):12775-12780. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1815820115. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Phylogenomics and the evolution of hemipteroid insects.

Author information

1
Illinois Natural History Survey, Prairie Research Institute, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Champaign, IL 61820; kpjohnso@illinois.edu.
2
Illinois Natural History Survey, Prairie Research Institute, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Champaign, IL 61820.
3
Institut für Zoologie, Universität Hamburg, 20146 Hamburg, Germany.
4
Institut für Zoologie und Evolutionsforschung, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, 07743 Jena, Germany.
5
Center of Taxonomy and Evolutionary Research, Arthropoda Department, Zoological Research Museum Alexander Koenig, 53113 Bonn, Germany.
6
Department of Biology, University of Nevada, Reno, NV 89557.
7
Center for Molecular Biodiversity Research, Zoological Research Museum Alexander Koenig, 53113 Bonn, Germany.
8
Department of Entomology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801.
9
Scientific Computing Group, Heidelberg Institute for Theoretical Studies, 69118 Heidelberg, Germany.
10
Institute of Evolutionary Biology and Ecology, University of Bonn, 53121 Bonn, Germany.
11
Evolutionary Biology and Ecology, Institute for Biology I (Zoology), University of Freiburg, 79104 Freiburg, Germany.
12
Australian National Insect Collection, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation National Research Collections Australia, Acton, ACT 2601 Canberra, Australia.
13
Department of Ecology and Evolution, University of Lausanne and Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics, 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland.
14
Department of Entomology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907.
15
Department of Entomology, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521.
16
Department of Life Sciences, Natural History Museum, London, SW7 5BD United Kingdom.
17
Department of Botany, University of British Columbia, Vancouver V6T 1Z4, Canada.
18
Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849.
19
School of Biological Sciences, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112.
20
BGI-Shenzhen, Shenzhen, 518083 Guangdong Province, People's Republic of China.
21
Department of Entomology, China Agricultural University, 100193 Beijing, People's Republic of China.
22
Systematic Entomology, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, 060-8589 Japan.

Abstract

Hemipteroid insects (Paraneoptera), with over 10% of all known insect diversity, are a major component of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Previous phylogenetic analyses have not consistently resolved the relationships among major hemipteroid lineages. We provide maximum likelihood-based phylogenomic analyses of a taxonomically comprehensive dataset comprising sequences of 2,395 single-copy, protein-coding genes for 193 samples of hemipteroid insects and outgroups. These analyses yield a well-supported phylogeny for hemipteroid insects. Monophyly of each of the three hemipteroid orders (Psocodea, Thysanoptera, and Hemiptera) is strongly supported, as are most relationships among suborders and families. Thysanoptera (thrips) is strongly supported as sister to Hemiptera. However, as in a recent large-scale analysis sampling all insect orders, trees from our data matrices support Psocodea (bark lice and parasitic lice) as the sister group to the holometabolous insects (those with complete metamorphosis). In contrast, four-cluster likelihood mapping of these data does not support this result. A molecular dating analysis using 23 fossil calibration points suggests hemipteroid insects began diversifying before the Carboniferous, over 365 million years ago. We also explore implications for understanding the timing of diversification, the evolution of morphological traits, and the evolution of mitochondrial genome organization. These results provide a phylogenetic framework for future studies of the group.

KEYWORDS:

Hemiptera; Psocodea; phylogeny; systematics; transcriptomes

PMID:
30478043
PMCID:
PMC6294958
[Available on 2019-06-11]
DOI:
10.1073/pnas.1815820115
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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