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J Hepatol. 2019 Mar;70(3):501-520. doi: 10.1016/j.jhep.2018.11.010. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

Evolutionary biology of human hepatitis viruses.

Author information

1
Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Corporate Member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Institute of Virology, 10117 Berlin, Germany; German Center for Infection Research (DZIF), Germany.
2
Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Corporate Member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Institute of Virology, 10117 Berlin, Germany.
3
Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Corporate Member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Institute of Virology, 10117 Berlin, Germany; German Center for Infection Research (DZIF), Germany. Electronic address: felix.drexler@charite.de.

Abstract

Hepatitis viruses are major threats to human health. During the last decade, highly diverse viruses related to human hepatitis viruses were found in animals other than primates. Herein, we describe both surprising conservation and striking differences of the unique biological properties and infection patterns of human hepatitis viruses and their animal homologues, including transmission routes, liver tropism, oncogenesis, chronicity, pathogenesis and envelopment. We discuss the potential for translation of newly discovered hepatitis viruses into preclinical animal models for drug testing, studies on pathogenesis and vaccine development. Finally, we re-evaluate the evolutionary origins of human hepatitis viruses and discuss the past and present zoonotic potential of their animal homologues.

KEYWORDS:

Evolution; Hepatitis; Homologues; Virus; Zoonotic

PMID:
30472320
DOI:
10.1016/j.jhep.2018.11.010

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