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Environ Int. 2019 Jan;122:151-158. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2018.10.060. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Fetal growth, stillbirth, infant mortality and other birth outcomes near UK municipal waste incinerators; retrospective population based cohort and case-control study.

Author information

1
UK Small Area Health Statistics Unit, MRC-PHE Centre for Environment and Health, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, W2 1PG, UK.
2
UK Small Area Health Statistics Unit, MRC-PHE Centre for Environment and Health, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, W2 1PG, UK; Population Health and Occupational Disease, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, SW3 6LR, UK; National Institute for Health Research Health Protection Research Unit (NIHR HPRU) in Health Impact of Environmental Hazards, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Imperial College London, London W2 1PG, UK.
3
UK Small Area Health Statistics Unit, MRC-PHE Centre for Environment and Health, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, W2 1PG, UK; MRC-PHE Centre for Environment and Health, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London W2 1PG, UK.
4
Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel, Switzerland; University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.
5
MRC-PHE Centre for Environment and Health, Environmental Research Group, School of Population Health and Environment Sciences, King's College London, London SE1 9NH, UK.
6
MRC-PHE Centre for Environment and Health, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London W2 1PG, UK; Centre for Environmental Health and Sustainability, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH, UK.
7
MRC-PHE Centre for Environment and Health, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London W2 1PG, UK.
8
UK Small Area Health Statistics Unit, MRC-PHE Centre for Environment and Health, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, W2 1PG, UK; National Institute for Health Research Health Protection Research Unit (NIHR HPRU) in Health Impact of Environmental Hazards, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Imperial College London, London W2 1PG, UK; MRC-PHE Centre for Environment and Health, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London W2 1PG, UK; Imperial College Biomedical Research Centre, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ, UK; Directorate of Public Health and Primary Care, Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, London W2 1NY, UK. Electronic address: p.elliott@imperial.ac.uk.
9
National Institute for Health Research Health Protection Research Unit (NIHR HPRU) in Health Impact of Environmental Hazards, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Imperial College London, London W2 1PG, UK; MRC-PHE Centre for Environment and Health, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London W2 1PG, UK. Electronic address: m.toledano@imperial.ac.uk.
10
UK Small Area Health Statistics Unit, MRC-PHE Centre for Environment and Health, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, W2 1PG, UK; National Institute for Health Research Health Protection Research Unit (NIHR HPRU) in Health Impact of Environmental Hazards, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Imperial College London, London W2 1PG, UK; MRC-PHE Centre for Environment and Health, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London W2 1PG, UK; Centre for Environmental Health and Sustainability, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH, UK; Directorate of Public Health and Primary Care, Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, London W2 1NY, UK. Electronic address: a.hansell@imperial.ac.uk.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Some studies have reported associations between municipal waste incinerator (MWI) exposures and adverse birth outcomes but there are few studies of modern MWIs operating to current European Union (EU) Industrial Emissions Directive standards.

METHODS:

Associations between modelled ground-level particulate matter ≤10 μm in diameter (PM10) from MWI emissions (as a proxy for MWI emissions) within 10 km of each MWI, and selected birth and infant mortality outcomes were examined for all 22 MWIs operating in Great Britain 2003-10. We also investigated associations with proximity of residence to a MWI. Outcomes used were term birth weight, small for gestational age (SGA) at term, stillbirth, neonatal, post-neonatal and infant mortality, multiple births, sex ratio and preterm delivery sourced from national registration data from the Office for National Statistics. Analyses were adjusted for relevant confounders including year of birth, sex, season of birth, maternal age, deprivation, ethnicity and area characteristics and random effect terms were included in the models to allow for differences in baseline rates between areas and in incinerator feedstock.

RESULTS:

Analyses included 1,025,064 births and 18,694 infant deaths. There was no excess risk in relation to any of the outcomes investigated during pregnancy or early life of either mean modelled MWI PM10 or proximity to an MWI.

CONCLUSIONS:

We found no evidence that exposure to PM10 from, or living near to, an MWI operating to current EU standards was associated with harm for any of the outcomes investigated. Results should be generalisable to other MWIs operating to similar standards.

KEYWORDS:

Birth weight; Environment; Epidemiology; Infant mortality; Municipal Waste Incinerator; Stillbirth

PMID:
30472002
DOI:
10.1016/j.envint.2018.10.060
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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