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J Clin Med. 2018 Nov 21;7(11). pii: E457. doi: 10.3390/jcm7110457.

Ultrasound Imaging for the Cutaneous Nerves of the Extremities and Relevant Entrapment Syndromes: From Anatomy to Clinical Implications.

Author information

1
Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, National Taiwan University Hospital, Bei-Hu Branch, Taipei 10845, Taiwan. kvchang011@gmail.com.
2
Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei 10048, Taiwan. kvchang011@gmail.com.
3
Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Charles University, First Faculty of Medicine, 12800 Prague, Czech Republic. kamal.mezian@gmail.com.
4
Institute of Anatomy, Charles University, First Faculty of Medicine, 12800 Prague, Czech Republic. ondrej.nanka@lf1.cuni.cz.
5
Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, National Taiwan University Hospital, Bei-Hu Branch, Taipei 10845, Taiwan. wwtaustin@yahoo.com.tw.
6
Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei 10048, Taiwan. amtb26536016@gmail.com.
7
Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei 11217, Taiwan. jcwang0726@gmail.com.
8
Department of Health Sciences (DISSAL), University of Genoa, 16132 Genoa, Italy. carlo.martinoli@unige.it.
9
Department of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine, Hacettepe University Medical School, 06100 Ankara, Turkey. lozcakar@yahoo.com.

Abstract

Cutaneous nerve entrapment plays an important role in neuropathic pain syndrome. Due to the advancement of ultrasound technology, the cutaneous nerves can be visualized by high-resolution ultrasound. As the cutaneous nerves course superficially in the subcutaneous layer, they are vulnerable to entrapment or collateral damage in traumatic insults. Scanning of the cutaneous nerves is challenging due to fewer anatomic landmarks for referencing. Therefore, the aim of the present article is to summarize the anatomy of the limb cutaneous nerves, to elaborate the scanning techniques, and also to discuss the clinical implications of pertinent entrapment syndromes of the medial brachial cutaneous nerve, intercostobrachial cutaneous nerve, medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve, lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve, posterior antebrachial cutaneous nerve, superficial branch of the radial nerve, dorsal cutaneous branch of the ulnar nerve, palmar cutaneous branch of the median nerve, anterior femoral cutaneous nerve, posterior femoral cutaneous nerve, lateral femoral cutaneous nerve, sural nerve, and saphenous nerve.

KEYWORDS:

compression; cutaneous nerve; electromyography; pain; sonography

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