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AIDS Behav. 2018 Nov 21. doi: 10.1007/s10461-018-2340-x. [Epub ahead of print]

Gender Differences and Psychosocial Factors Associated with Problem Drinking Among Adults Enrolling in HIV Care in Tanzania.

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Department of Maternal and Child Health, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, CB#7445, Chapel Hill, NC, 27599-7445, USA.
Institute for Implementation Science in Population Health, City University of New York, New York, NY, USA.
Institute for Implementation Science in Population Health, City University of New York, New York, NY, USA.
Graduate School of Public Health and Health Policy, City University of New York, New York, NY, USA.
Department of Epidemiology, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA.


Problem drinking is commonly reported among people living with HIV (PLWH), associated with suboptimal HIV care outcomes and differs by gender. Psychosocial factors associated with problem drinking among PLWH remain poorly understood, including whether they differ by gender. This analysis examines the relationship between psychosocial factors and problem drinking separately by gender among PLWH in Tanzania. Cross-sectional data were collected from 812 men and non-pregnant women living with HIV aged 18 or older enrolling in HIV care at four health facilities in Tanzania. Problem drinking was assessed with the CAGE Questionnaire and defined as responding yes to two or more items. Sex-stratified multivariable logistic regression modeled the association of social support, HIV-related stigma, and physical or sexual violence on problem drinking, controlling for age, relationship status, employment, having been away from home for more than  one month, and timing of first HIV-positive diagnosis. Thirteen percent of the sample reported problem drinking, with problem drinking significantly more commonly reported among men than non-pregnant women (17.6% vs. 9.5%). Among men and non-pregnant women, in multivariable analyses, enacted and internalized HIV-related stigma were significantly positively associated with problem drinking. Screening and treatment of problem drinking should be integrated into HIV care. Evidence-based substance abuse interventions should be adapted to address HIV-related stigma. Future research should longitudinally investigate the interrelationships between stigma, violence, and problem drinking among PLWH.


Alcohol; HIV; Stigma; Tanzania; Violence


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