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Front Psychiatry. 2018 Nov 7;9:545. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2018.00545. eCollection 2018.

Sugar Addiction: From Evolution to Revolution.

Author information

1
Fielding School of Public Health, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, United States.
2
Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, United States.
3
School of Medicine, University of Los Andes, Mérida, Venezuela.

Abstract

The obesity epidemic has been widely publicized in the media worldwide. Investigators at all levels have been looking for factors that have contributed to the development of this epidemic. Two major theories have been proposed: (1) sedentary lifestyle and (2) variety and ease of inexpensive palatable foods. In the present review, we analyze how nutrients like sugar that are often used to make foods more appealing could also lead to habituation and even in some cases addiction thereby uniquely contributing to the obesity epidemic. We review the evolutionary aspects of feeding and how they have shaped the human brain to function in "survival mode" signaling to "eat as much as you can while you can." This leads to our present understanding of how the dopaminergic system is involved in reward and its functions in hedonistic rewards, like eating of highly palatable foods, and drug addiction. We also review how other neurotransmitters, like acetylcholine, interact in the satiation processes to counteract the dopamine system. Lastly, we analyze the important question of whether there is sufficient empirical evidence of sugar addiction, discussed within the broader context of food addiction.

KEYWORDS:

acetylcholine; dopamine; drug addiction; feeding behavior; food addiction; nucleus accumbens; obesity; sucrose

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