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Int J Nanomedicine. 2018 Nov 1;13:7019-7031. doi: 10.2147/IJN.S185715. eCollection 2018.

Injectable hydrogel composite containing modified gold nanoparticles: implication in bone tissue regeneration.

Author information

1
Department of Dental Materials, School of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 02447, Republic of Korea, kwoni@khu.ac.kr.
2
Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics, Pennsylvania State University, Pennsylvania 16802, USA.
3
Department of Detistry, Graduate School, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 02447, Republic of Korea.
4
Department of Neurosurgery, CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do 13496, Republic of Korea.
5
Department of Dental Education, School of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 02447, Republic of Korea.
6
Department of Maxillofacial Biomedical Engineering, School of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 02447, Republic of Korea.
7
The Discoveries Centre for Regenerative and Precision Medicine, Headquarters at University of Minho, Barco, Guimarães, Portugal.

Abstract

Background:

For effective bone regeneration, it is necessary to implant a biocompatible scaffold that is capable of inducing cell growth and continuous osteogenic stimulation at the defected site. Here, we suggest an injectable hydrogel system using enzymatic cross-linkable gelatin (Gel) and functionalized gold nanoparticles (GNPs).

Methods:

In this work, tyramine (Ty) was synthesized on the gelatin backbone (Gel-Ty) to enable a phenol crosslinking reaction with horseradish peroxidase (HRP). N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) was attached to the GNPs surface (G-NAC) for promoting osteodifferentiation.

Results:

The Gel-Ty hydrogels containing G-NAC (Gel-Ty/G-NAC) had suitable mechanical strength and biocompatibility to embed and support the growth of human adipose derived stem cells (hASCs) during a proliferation test for three days. In addition, G-NAC promoted osteodifferentiation both when it was included in Gel-Ty and when it was used directly in hASCs. The osteogenic effects were demonstrated by the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity test.

Conclusion:

These findings indicate that the phenol crosslinking reaction is suitable for injectable hydrogels for tissue regeneration and G-NAC stimulate bone regeneration. Based on our results, we suggest that Gel-Ty/G-NAC hydrogels can serve both as a biodegradable graft material for bone defect treatment and as a good template for tissue engineering applications such as drug delivery, cell delivery, and various tissue regeneration uses.

KEYWORDS:

N-acetyl cysteine; enzymatic cross-linking; gelatin; nanomaterial; osteogenesis

Conflict of interest statement

Disclosure The authors report no conflicts of interest in this work.

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