Send to

Choose Destination
J Med Case Rep. 2018 Nov 22;12(1):346. doi: 10.1186/s13256-018-1885-7.

Streptococcus pyogenes bacteremia and toxic shock syndrome related to Strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection: a case report.

Author information

Infectious Diseases Unit, Sanz Medical Center, Laniado Hospital, Netanya, Israel.
Ruth and Bruce Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, Technion, Haifa, Israel.
Infectious Diseases Unit, Sanz Medical Center, Laniado Hospital, Netanya, Israel.
Intensive Care Unit, Sanz Medical Center, Laniado Hospital, Netanya, Israel.
Reference Parasitology Laboratory, Central Laboratories, Public Health Services, Ministry of Health, Jerusalem, Israel.



We describe a patient with Strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection associated with Streptococcus pyogenes and with streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. To the best of our knowledge this association has not been previously described.


A 78 year-old Israeli man, who was born in Iraq but lived in Israel for 66 years, presented with multi-organ failure including acute kidney and hepatic injury, coagulopathy, and lactic acidosis. He had a medical history including aortic valve replacement, diabetes mellitus, spinal stenosis, and low back pain treated with repeated local steroid injections. Blood cultures were positive for Streptococcus pyogenes and antibiotic treatment was switched to penicillin G, clindamycin, and intravenous immunoglobulins. Repeated physical examinations failed to identify the source of the bacteremia. On day 12 of hospitalization the serology results for Strongyloides stercoralis sent on admission, because of chronic eosinophilia, came back positive. A microscopic stool examination and stool polymerase chain reaction were positive for Strongyloides stercoralis. Ivermectin therapy was commenced and continued for a total of 4 weeks. He was discharged for rehabilitation after 25 days. He had no exposure to endemic countries or to immigrants. During many years he had multiple gastrointestinal symptoms, respiratory symptoms, cutaneous symptoms, chronic eosinophilia, and high immunoglobulin E levels. He underwent several operative procedures and numerous hospitalizations and medical encounters with different experts but a parasitic infection was not considered. His asymptomatic daughter was also found to be serologically positive.


Strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection associated with Streptococcus pyogenes bacteremia and toxic shock is described for the first time. The case also highlights the importance of history taking and reviewing past laboratory results, the utility of serological tests for Strongyloides stercoralis, and the importance of screening asymptomatic family members of an infected patient. Strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection must be considered in the differential diagnosis of any patient with Streptococcus pyogenes bacteremia or toxic shock of no clear source as well as in symptomatic patients with chronic or intermittent eosinophilia, even without any epidemiological risk factors.


Eosinophilia; Glucocorticoid; Group A streptococcus (GAS); Hyperinfection; Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS); Streptococcus pyogenes; Strongyloides stercoralis

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for BioMed Central Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center