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Transl Pediatr. 2018 Oct;7(4):284-290. doi: 10.21037/tp.2018.09.04.

From the street to the ICU: a review of pediatric emergency medical services and critical care transport.

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Division of Emergency Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Cincinnati Children's Hospital, University of Cincinnati School of Medicine, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA.
Division of Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Akron Children's Hospital, Northeast Ohio Medical University, Akron, Ohio, USA.


Emergency medical services and critical care transport teams are relatively new parts of the American healthcare delivery system. Although most healthcare providers regularly interact with these groups and rely upon their almost ubiquitous availability, few know how these services developed or what sort of infrastructure currently exists to maintain them. This article provides a focused overview of the history and present practices of both emergency medical services and critical care transport teams, with a concentrated look at the implementation of these services in the pediatric population. Within this context, we also consider current challenges and future opportunities for both groups and conclude with ways to become involved in the improvement of out-of-hospital pediatric critical care.


Critical care; emergency medical services (EMS); modern medicine; pediatrics

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Conflicts of Interest: The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare.

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