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Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2018 Dec;28(12):1275-1284. doi: 10.1016/j.numecd.2018.08.005. Epub 2018 Aug 30.

Comparison of a Mediterranean to a low-fat diet intervention in adults with type 1 diabetes and metabolic syndrome: A 6-month randomized trial.

Author information

1
Institut de Recherches Cliniques de Montréal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; Department of nutrition, Université de Montréal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
2
Institut de Recherches Cliniques de Montréal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; Department of nutrition, Université de Montréal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Electronic address: remi.rabasa-lhoret@ircm.qc.ca.
3
Institut sur la nutrition et les aliments fonctionnels, Laval University, Quebec, Canada; School of Nutrition, Laval University, Quebec, Canada.

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND AIMS:

The metabolic syndrome (MS) is an emerging complication in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D), with no preventive or therapeutic treatment reported yet. We wanted to compare the impact of two 6-month nutritional interventions, based on a Mediterranean (MED) or a low-fat diet, on waist circumference, anthropometric and metabolic outcomes in patients with both T1D and the MS.

METHODS AND RESULTS:

Participants were randomized into 2 intervention groups: 1) MED-diet or 2) low-fat diet. The 6-month study included 9 teaching sessions with a registered dietitian. Anthropometric (primary outcome: waist circumference), metabolic and nutritional assessments were performed at inclusion, 3 and 6-month. We used mixed effects models to assess the effects of both interventions. 28 participants were included (50.9 ± 10.3 years old) with a mean BMI of 30.7 ± 3.3 kg/m2 and a waist circumference of 105.5 ± 8.9 cm at inclusion. A trend towards a greater reduction of dietary fat intakes in the low-fat diet group was observed (P-interaction = 0.09). Waist circumference was reduced at 6-month in both groups (-3.5 cm low-fat; -1.5 cm MED-diet) with no significant difference between groups (P-interaction = 0.43). Body mass index also significantly decreased in both groups (-0.7 kg/m2 low-fat; -1.1 kg/m2 MED-diet; P-interaction = 0.56). No significant differences between groups were observed for other metabolic parameters.

CONCLUSIONS:

This study suggests that a 6-month non-restrictive dietary intervention in patients with T1D and MS could contribute to weight management, without significant differences between interventions for anthropometric and metabolic parameters. Further studies should investigate the long-term benefits of these diets.

CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRY:

NCT02821585 (https://clinicaltrials.gov/).

KEYWORDS:

Low-fat diet; Mediterranean diet; Metabolic syndrome; Nutritional intervention; Type 1 diabetes

PMID:
30459054
DOI:
10.1016/j.numecd.2018.08.005
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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