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Reprod Sci. 2019 Sep;26(9):1210-1217. doi: 10.1177/1933719118811648. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

The Deferred Embryo Transfer Strategy Seems Not to be a Good Option After Repeated IVF/ICSI Cycle Failures.

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1 Faculté de Médecine, Département de gynécologie, obstétrique II et médecine de la reproduction, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP), Centre Hospitalier Universitaire (CHU) Cochin, Université Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris, France.
2 Institut Cochin, INSERM U1016, Laboratoire d'immunologie, Université Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris, France.
3 Faculté de Médecine, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP), Hôpital Universitaire Paris Centre, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire (CHU) Cochin, Service d'Histologie-Embryologie-Biologie de la Reproduction, Université Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris, France.
4 Institut Cochin, Inserm U1016, Département de "Génetique, Développement et Cancer", Université Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris, France.



The aim of this study was to assess whether a deferred frozen-thawed embryo transfer (Def-ET) offers any benefits compared to a fresh ET strategy in women who have had 2 or more consecutive in vitro fertilization (IVF)/intracytoplasmic injection (ICSI) cycle failures.


An observational cohort study in a tertiary referral care center including 416 cycles from women with a previous history of 2 or more consecutive IVF/ICSI failures cycles. Both Def-ET and fresh ET strategies were compared using univariate and multivariate logistic regression models. The main outcome measured was the cumulative live birth rate (CLBR).


A total of 416 cycles were included in the analysis: 197 in the fresh ET group and 219 in the Def-ET group. The CLBR was not significantly different between the fresh and Def-ET groups (58/197 [29.4%] and 57/219 [26.0%], respectively, P = .437). In addition, after the first ET, there was no significant difference in the live birth rate between the fresh ET and Def-ET groups (50/197 [25.4%] vs 44/219 [20.1%], respectively). Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that compared to the fresh strategy, the Def-ET strategy was not associated with a higher probability of live birth.


In cases with 2 or more consecutive prior IVF/ICSI cycle failures, a Def-ET strategy did not result in better ART outcomes than a fresh ET strategy.


ART; IVF/ICSI; fresh embryo transfer; frozen-thawed embryo transfer; repeated IVF/ICSI cycle failures


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