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Nat Rev Nephrol. 2019 Feb;15(2):73-86. doi: 10.1038/s41581-018-0081-8.

Hepatitis C virus and the kidney.

Author information

1
Université Paris Descartes; Hepatology Department, Cochin Hospital, APHP; INSERM U1223, UMS-20 and Center for Translational Science, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France. stanislas.pol@aphp.fr.
2
Université Paris Descartes; Hepatology Department, Cochin Hospital, APHP; INSERM U1223, UMS-20 and Center for Translational Science, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France.
3
Department of Nephrology, Cliniques universitaires Saint-Luc, Université catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium.

Abstract

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is more prevalent and is associated with higher mortality in patients receiving dialysis and in kidney transplant recipients than in the general population. Kidney transplant recipients who are HCV-positive are also at higher risk of allograft and liver failure than are HCV-negative recipients. Moreover, HCV infection is associated with a higher incidence and faster progression of diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease (CKD), as well as a higher incidence of systemic (especially cardiovascular) complications. The finding that these complications of HCV infection are attenuated in patients who achieve a sustained virologic response (SVR) emphasizes the need to treat patients with CKD who are HCV-positive with oral antiviral therapies. Fortunately, the available evidence suggests that a SVR can be achieved in >95% of patients with late-stage CKD and in kidney transplant recipients. According to international guidelines, all patients with CKD and HCV infection should be considered for treatment with direct acting antivirals (DAAs), prioritizing those with symptomatic cryoglobulinaemic vasculitis, extensive liver fibrosis and stage 4-5 CKD. DAA treatment can be delayed until after transplantation in recipients whose waiting time is markedly reduced by accepting an HCV-positive organ. An emerging issue is the long-term renal safety of DAAs, which requires a re-appraisal. Overall, the elimination of HCV from patients with CKD now seems to be achievable, provided that DAA treatment is coupled with reinforced hygienic precautions to prevent reinfections in dialysis units.

PMID:
30455426
DOI:
10.1038/s41581-018-0081-8

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