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Environ Int. 2019 Jan;122:316-321. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2018.11.030. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

The association between maternal exposure to ambient particulate matter of 2.5 μm or less during pregnancy and fetal congenital anomalies in Yinchuan, China: A population-based cohort study.

Author information

1
Department of Scientific Research, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, China.
2
Department of Maternal and Child Health, School of Public Health, Peking University, Beijing, China; Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia.
3
Department of Laboratorial Science and Technology, School of Public Health, Peking University, Beijing, China.
4
Yinchuan Maternal and Child Health Care Hospital, Yinchuan, Ningxia, China.
5
Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia. Electronic address: Shanshan.Li@monash.edu.
6
Key Laboratory of Fertility Preservation and Maintenance of Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory of Reproduction and Genetics in Ningxia, School of Public Health and Management, Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan, Ningxia, China. Electronic address: zhyj830515@126.com.
7
Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Few studies from western countries have linked prenatal exposure to ambient particulate matter <2.5 μm (PM2.5) with increased risk of congenital anomalies. However, the results are mixed. Particularly, evidence is limited for Chinese pregnant women.

METHODS:

In this retrospective cohort study, we matched the data of all pregnant women laboured in public hospitals during 2015-2016 in Yinchuan, a capital city of northwest China and the data of daily average PM2.5, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulphur dioxide (SO2) and ozone (O3) concentrations of the nearest monitor station. We calculated a time-dependent exposure over the entire pregnancy for each woman. We used a time varying Cox proportional hazards model to explore the association between PM2.5 exposure and the risk of congenital anomalies, after adjusting for individual confounders and other pollutants.

RESULTS:

A total of 39,386 singleton live births were included in the study, and 530 (1.35%) were with congenital anomalies. An increase of 10 μg/m3 in PM2.5 exposure over the entire pregnancy was significantly associated with increased risk of congenital anomalies, with hazard ratio (HR) of 1.35 [95% confidence interval (95%CI): 1.16, 1.58]. For subtype analyses, PM2.5 exposure exhibited a significant association with cardiac anomalies and other unclassifiable anomalies, with HRs of 1.60 (95%CI: 1.24, 2.08) and 1.42 (95%CI: 1.07, 1.89), respectively. The impacts of PM2.5 exposure on orofacial anomalies and musculoskeletal anomalies were not significant.

CONCLUSION:

Our results indicate high concentration of PM2.5 could increase the risk of congenital anomalies among Chinese, especially for cardiac anomalies. Self-protective measures involving reducing PM2.5 pollution exposure during pregnancy as well as environmental policies aiming to restrict PM2.5 emission could be helpful to reduce the burden of cognitional anomalies.

KEYWORDS:

Cardiac anomalies; Congenital anomalies; PM(2.5) exposure

PMID:
30455103
DOI:
10.1016/j.envint.2018.11.030
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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