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Clin EEG Neurosci. 2019 Jul;50(4):242-255. doi: 10.1177/1550059418813034. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

EEG Neurofeedback Training in Children With Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Cognitive and Behavioral Outcome Study.

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1 National Institute of Mental Health & Neuro Sciences, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.
2 Department of Psychology, Christ (Deemed to be University), Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.



Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a highly prevalent childhood disorder with symptoms of inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. EEG neurofeedback training (NFT) is a new intervention modality based on operant conditioning of brain activity, which helps reduce symptoms of ADHD in children.


To examine the efficacy of NFT in children with ADHD, an experimental longitudinal design with pre-post comparison was adopted. A total of 30 children in the age range of 6 to 12 years diagnosed as ADHD with or without comorbid conditions were assigned to treatment group (TG; n = 15) and treatment as usual group (TAU; n = 15). TG received EEG-NFT along with routine clinical management and TAU received routine clinical management alone. Forty sessions of theta/beta NFT at the C3 scalp location, 3 to 4 sessions in a week for a period of 3.5 to 5 months were given to children in TG. Children were screened using sociodemographic data and Binet-Kamat test of intelligence. Pre-and postassessment tools were neuropsychological tests and behavioral scales. Follow-up was carried out on 8 children in TG using parent-rated behavioral measures.


Improvement was reported in TG on cognitive functions (sustained attention, verbal working memory, and response inhibition), parent- and teacher-rated behavior problems and on academic performance rated by teachers. Follow-up of children who received NFT showed sustained improvement in ADHD symptoms when assessed 6 months after receiving NFT.


The present study suggests that NFT is an effective method to enhance cognitive deficits and helps reduce ADHD symptoms and behavior problems. Consequently, academic performance was found to be improved in children with ADHD. Improvement in ADHD symptoms induced by NFT were maintained at 6-month follow-up in children with ADHD.


ADHD; EEG neurofeedback; attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder; children; follow-up


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