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Protist. 2018 Dec;169(6):926-957. doi: 10.1016/j.protis.2018.09.003. Epub 2018 Oct 5.

Xenophyophores (Rhizaria, Foraminifera) from the Eastern Clarion-Clipperton Zone (equatorial Pacific): the Genus Psammina.

Author information

1
National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, University of Southampton Waterfront Campus, European Way, Southampton SO14 3ZH, UK. Electronic address: ang@noc.ac.uk.
2
University of Geneva, Department of Genetics and Evolution, Quai Ernest Ansermet 30, 1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland.
3
National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, University of Southampton Waterfront Campus, European Way, Southampton SO14 3ZH, UK.
4
Shirshov Institute of Oceanology Russian Academy of Sciences, Nakhimovsky Prosp. 36, 117997 Moscow, Russia.
5
Joint Stock Company Yuzhmorgeologiya, Krymskaya St., 20, 353461 Gelendzhik, Russia.
6
Ocean and Earth Science, University of Southampton, National Oceanography Centre Southampton, Waterfront Campus, European Way, Southampton SO14 3ZH, UK.

Abstract

Xenophyophores are important megafaunal organisms in the abyssal Clarion-Clipperton Zone (CCZ; equatorial Pacific), a region hosting commercially significant deposits of polymetallic nodules. Previous studies assigned those with attached, fan-like tests to Psammina limbata, a species described from the central CCZ based on morphology. Here, we redescribe the holotype of P. limbata and then show that limbata-like morphotypes collected in the eastern CCZ include three genetically distinct species. Psammina aff. limbata is closest morphologically to P. limbata. The others are described as P. microgranulata sp. nov. and P. rotunda sp. nov. These fan-shaped species form a well-supported clade with P. tortilis sp. nov., a morphologically variable species exhibiting features typical of both Psammina and Semipsammina. A second clade containing Psammina sp. 3, and two species questionably assigned to Galatheammina branches at the base of this group. The genus Psammina includes another 9 described species for which there are no genetic data, leaving open the question of whether Psammina as a whole is monophyletic. Our study increases the number of xenophyophore species described from the eastern CCZ from 8 to 11, with a further 25 morphotypes currently undescribed. Many additional species of these giant foraminifera undoubtedly await discovery in abyssal settings.

KEYWORDS:

Agglutinated foraminifera; SSU rDNA sequences; deep-sea mining; monothalamids; new species; polymetallic nodules.

PMID:
30453273
DOI:
10.1016/j.protis.2018.09.003
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