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Drug Alcohol Depend. 2019 Jan 1;194:205-209. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2018.11.001. Epub 2018 Nov 3.

Effect of menstrual cycle on ethanol drinking in rhesus monkeys.

Author information

1
Department of Physiology & Pharmacology, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC 27157, United States.
2
Department of Physiology & Pharmacology, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC 27157, United States. Electronic address: pczoty@wakehealth.edu.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Sex differences in the abuse-related effects of alcohol have been demonstrated in the clinic and in preclinical animal models. Less is known about the influence of menstrual cycle phase on drinking.

METHODS:

In this study, we examined the relationship between menstrual cycle phase and intake of ethanol (EtOH) in five adult female rhesus monkeys. Subjects consumed a 4% EtOH solution in their home cage 6 h per day, 5 days per week and pressed a lever to receive food pellets during the drinking session. Menstrual cycle was determined with vaginal swabs 5-7 days per week. To facilitate comparison with previous studies, the cycle was divided three different ways for analysis.

RESULTS:

First, no significant difference was observed when EtOH intake was compared between phases defined as "follicular" (days 5-10) and "luteal" (19-24). Second, when the cycle was further divided into four phases [early follicular (days 1-7), late follicular (8-14), early luteal (15-21) and late luteal (22-next cycle)], significant differences were detected, with intake highest in phases that bracket menses and lowest in the late follicular phase. Finally, EtOH intake during "mid-cycle" (days 12-16) was significantly lower than during "menses" (days 1-5) and "late luteal" (last 5 days). Effect sizes were small to moderate, although absolute differences in EtOH intake (g/kg) were <15%. Food-maintained responding was not different across phases.

CONCLUSIONS:

Menstrual cycle has modest but statistically significant and selective effects on EtOH drinking, with higher EtOH intake observed in the peri-menstrual period compared to the middle of the cycle.

KEYWORDS:

Alcohol; Animal model; Ethanol; Follicular; Luteal; Menstrual cycle; Nonhuman primate

PMID:
30453105
PMCID:
PMC6312462
[Available on 2020-01-01]
DOI:
10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2018.11.001
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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