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J Histochem Cytochem. 2018 Nov 19:22155418812879. doi: 10.1369/0022155418812879. [Epub ahead of print]

Leukocyte Nucleus Reveals a Linear Order of Chromosomes Separated in Two Parental Genomes That Favors the Process of Gene Activation.

Author information

1
LMU Kinderpoliklinik, Tumorcytogenetic Unit, Munich, Germany.
2
Jena University Hospital, Institute of Human Genetics, Friedrich Schiller University, Jena, Germany.
3
Quest Diagnostics (Med Fusion), Lewisville, TX.
4
Inform Diagnostics, Phoenix, AZ.
5
Zentrum Humangenetik und Laboratoriumsdiagnostik, Martinsried, Germany.

Abstract

Analysis of trisomy 8 cells and the chromosome-specific fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) signals on the ring-shaped nucleus of a neutrophil reveal that homologue chromosomes orient in diametrical opposition to each other. This positioning results in a separation of the two haploid sets of parental chromosomes organized as two exclusive groups. These two groups impart the nucleus a symmetry that fortifies immune protection by accelerating chemotaxis. The ring form of the nucleus is a legacy of the orientation of chromosomes as a rosette during metaphase and telophase stages. A dual control maintains this spatial order: (1) chromosomes are tethered to the centriole all through the cell cycle, and (2) during their circular orientation in telophase the chromosomes bind to each other with lamins, which reorganize the nuclear membrane of the daughter nuclei, generating an additional anchorage. Here, chromosomes serve as temporary packets to assure proper distribution of the nuclear DNA during mitosis. The remainder time of the cell cycle the chromosomes are chained together across the telomeres, allowing a continuous sequence of genes of the two genomes, maternal and paternal, thus facilitating easy reading of the gene sequence. Exceptions to these orders are either physiological and temporary, or pathological and disease causing.

KEYWORDS:

chromosome organization; contest and concordance of the parental genes; cytogenetics and gene activation; leukocytes; nuclear morphology and function

PMID:
30452875
DOI:
10.1369/0022155418812879

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