Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Eur Heart J. 2019 Apr 7;40(14):1124-1134. doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehy683.

Workplace bullying and workplace violence as risk factors for cardiovascular disease: a multi-cohort study.

Author information

1
Section of Epidemiology, Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Gothersgade 160, DK-1123 Copenhagen, Denmark.
2
Division for Epidemiology, Stress Research Institute, Stockholm University, SE-10691, Stockholm, Sweden.
3
National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Lersø Parkallé 105, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark.
4
Section of Biostatistics, Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Øster Farimagsgade 2A, DK-1353 Copenhagen, Denmark.
5
Centre for Statistical Science, Peking University, No. 5 Yiheyuan Road, Beijing CN-100871, China.
6
Department of Psychology, University of Copenhagen, Øster Farimagsgade 2A, DK-1353 Copenhagen, Denmark.
7
Department of Public Health, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, FI-20014 Turku, Finland.
8
Section of Social Medicine, Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Gothersgade 160, DK-1123 Copenhagen, Denmark.
9
Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Topeliuksenkatu 41 b, FI-00250 Helsinki, Finland.
10
Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, University of Uppsala, Husargatan 3, Uppsala, Sweden.
11
Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, 1-19 Torrington Place, London, UK.
12
Clinicum, Faculty of Medicine, PO Box 63, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

Abstract

AIMS:

To assess the associations between bullying and violence at work and cardiovascular disease (CVD).

METHODS AND RESULTS:

Participants were 79 201 working men and women, aged 18-65 years and free of CVD and were sourced from three cohort studies from Sweden and Denmark. Exposure to workplace bullying and violence was measured at baseline using self-reports. Participants were linked to nationwide health and death registers to ascertain incident CVD, including coronary heart disease and cerebrovascular disease. Study-specific results were estimated by marginal structural Cox regression and were combined using fixed-effect meta-analysis. Nine percent reported being bullied at work and 13% recorded exposure to workplace violence during the past year. We recorded 3229 incident CVD cases with a mean follow-up of 12.4 years (765 in the first 4 years). After adjustment for age, sex, country of birth, marital status, and educational level, being bullied at work vs. not was associated with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.59 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.28-1.98] for CVD. Experiencing workplace violence vs. not was associated with a HR of 1.25 (95% CI 1.12-1.40) for CVD. The population attributable risk was 5.0% for workplace bullying and 3.1% for workplace violence. The excess risk remained similar in analyses with different follow-up lengths, cardiovascular risk stratifications, and after additional adjustments. Dose-response relations were observed for both workplace bullying and violence (Ptrend < 0.001). There was only negligible heterogeneity in study-specific estimates.

CONCLUSION:

Bullying and violence are common at workplaces and those exposed to these stressors are at higher risk of CVD.

KEYWORDS:

Bullying; Cardiovascular disease; Occupational health; Psychosocial stress; Violence; Workplace

PMID:
30452614
DOI:
10.1093/eurheartj/ehy683

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Silverchair Information Systems
Loading ...
Support Center