Send to

Choose Destination
PLoS One. 2018 Nov 19;13(11):e0207739. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0207739. eCollection 2018.

The equivalence of measures on the Connectedness to Nature Scale: A comparison between ordinal methods of DIF detection.

Author information

University Complutense of Madrid, Madrid, Spain.
Oberlin College, Oberlin, Ohio, United States of America.


The Connectedness to Nature Scale has been used in many different countries and settings. However, no one has yet tested the equivalence of these measures. Equivalence of measures has been the subject of much research in recent years, due to the importance of measuring in the same way when comparing between different groups. The present work studied the differential item functioning (DIF) of the CNS in a Spanish group and a North American group of respondents, using two different methods of detecting DIF. It also evaluated the overall equivalence of the scale. The results reveal differential functioning in most items, and only configural invariance is given. Thus, we suggest a reappraisal of the scale when comparing results from different countries since otherwise the conclusions drawn might be incorrect.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Public Library of Science Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center