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Obes Rev. 2019 Feb;20(2):262-277. doi: 10.1111/obr.12793. Epub 2018 Nov 18.

Vitamin D and cardiometabolic disorders: a review of current evidence, genetic determinants and pathomechanisms.

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Monash Centre for Health Research and Implementation (MCHRI), School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.
School of Population Health, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.


Vitamin D deficiency has been implicated in the pathophysiology of cardiometabolic disorders including obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases and polycystic ovary syndrome. Despite a large number of experimental and observational studies supporting a role for vitamin D in these pathologies, randomized controlled trials have reported little to no effect of vitamin D supplementation in the prevention or treatment of these disorders, although some results remain ambiguous. Polymorphisms in genes related to vitamin D metabolism, particularly in the vitamin D receptor and binding protein and the metabolizing enzyme 1-α-hydroxylase, have emerged as potential contributors to these divergent results. It is now becoming increasingly recognized that the effects and potential benefits of vitamin D supplementation may vary by several factors including vitamin D deficiency status, ethnicity and/or the presence of genetic variants, which affect individual responses to supplementation. However, these factors have seldom been explored in the available literature. Future trials should consider inter-individual differences and, in particular, should aim to clarify whether certain subgroups of individuals may benefit from vitamin D supplementation in the context of cardiometabolic health.


Cardiometabolic disorders; diabetes; obesity; vitamin D

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