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Front Neurosci. 2018 Nov 2;12:802. doi: 10.3389/fnins.2018.00802. eCollection 2018.

METH-Induced Neurotoxicity Is Alleviated by Lactulose Pretreatment Through Suppressing Oxidative Stress and Neuroinflammation in Rat Striatum.

Author information

1
Department of Toxicology, School of Public Health, Southern Medical University (Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Tropical Disease Research), Guangzhou, China.
2
Department of Forensic Pathology, School of Forensic Medicine, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Abstract

Abuse of methamphetamine (METH) results in neurological and psychiatric abnormalities. Lactulose is a poorly absorbed derivative of lactose and can effectively alleviate METH-induced neurotoxicity in rats. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of lactulose on METH-induced neurotoxicity. Rats received METH (15 mg/kg, 8 intraperitoneal injections, 12-h interval) or saline and received lactulose (5.3 g/kg, oral gavage, 12-h interval) or vehicle 2 days prior to the METH administration. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured. Protein levels of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), tumor necrosis factor receptor associated factor 6 (TRAF6), nuclear factor κB (NFκB), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, cleaved caspase 3, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) were determined by western blotting. mRNA expressions of nuclear factor erythroid 2-relatted factor-2 (Nrf2), p62, and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) were assessed by RT-qPCR. The lactulose pretreatment decreased METH-induced cytoplasmic damage in rat livers according to histopathological observation. Compared to the control group, overproduction of ROS and MDA were observed in rat striatums in the METH alone-treated group, while the lactulose pretreatment significantly attenuated the METH-induced up-regulation of oxidative stress. The lactulose pretreatment significantly repressed over-expressions of proteins of TLR4, MyD88, TRAF6, NFκB, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, cleaved caspase 3, PARP-1. The lactulose pretreatment increased mRNA expressions of Nrf2, p62, and HO-1. These findings suggest that lactulose pretreatment can alleviate METH-induced neurotoxicity through suppressing neuroinflammation and oxidative stress, which might be attributed to the activation of the Nrf2/HO-1 axis.

KEYWORDS:

METH; Nrf2/HO-1 axis; lactulose; neuroinflammation; oxidative stress

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