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Exp Gerontol. 2019 Jan;115:19-31. doi: 10.1016/j.exger.2018.11.011. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Effects of hindlimb suspension and reloading on gastrocnemius and soleus muscle mass and function in geriatric mice.

Author information

1
Interuniversity Exchange Undergraduate Program, CAPES Foundation, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, PE 50670-901, Brazil; Laboratory of Muscle Biology and Sarcopenia, Division of Exercise Physiology, Dept. of Human Performance & Applied Exercise Science, West Virginia University School of Medicine, Morgantown, WV 26506, United States of America.
2
Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, University of Tennessee Health Sciences Center, Memphis, TN 38163, United States of America; Laboratory of Muscle Biology and Sarcopenia, Division of Exercise Physiology, Dept. of Human Performance & Applied Exercise Science, West Virginia University School of Medicine, Morgantown, WV 26506, United States of America.
3
Laboratory of Muscle Biology and Sarcopenia, Division of Exercise Physiology, Dept. of Human Performance & Applied Exercise Science, West Virginia University School of Medicine, Morgantown, WV 26506, United States of America.
4
Dept. of Physical Therapy, College of Health Professions, University of Tennessee Health Sciences Center, Memphis, TN 38163, United States of America; Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, University of Tennessee Health Sciences Center, Memphis, TN 38163, United States of America; Laboratory of Muscle Biology and Sarcopenia, Division of Exercise Physiology, Dept. of Human Performance & Applied Exercise Science, West Virginia University School of Medicine, Morgantown, WV 26506, United States of America. Electronic address: salway@uthsc.edu.

Abstract

Reloading of atrophied muscles after hindlimb suspension (HLS) can induce muscle injury and prolong recovery after disuse in old rats, especially in fast contracting muscles. Less is known about the responses in mice and whether fast and slow muscles from geriatric mice will respond in a similar fashion to HLS unloading and recovery (HLS + R). Furthermore, while slow muscles undergo atrophy with disuse, they typically are more resistant to sarcopenia than fast contracting muscles. Geriatric (28 mo. of age) male C57BL/6 mice were randomly placed into 3 groups. These included HLS for 14 days n = 9, and HLS followed by 14 days of reloading recovery (HLS + R; n = 9), or normal ambulatory cage controls (n = 9). Control mice were not exposed to unloading. Electrically evoked maximal muscle function was assessed in vivo in anesthetized mice at baseline, after 14 days of HLS or HLS + R. As expected, HLS significantly reduced body weight, wet weight of gastrocnemius and soleus muscles and in vivo maximal force. There were no differences in vivo fatigability of the plantar flexor muscles and overall fiber size. There were only minor fiber type distribution and frequency distribution of fiber sizes that differ between HLS + R and control gastrocnemius and soleus muscles. Soleus muscle wet weight had recovered to control levels after reloading, but type I/IIA fibers in the soleus muscles were significantly smaller after HLS + R than control muscles. In contrast, gastrocnemius muscle wet weight did not recover to control levels after reloading. Plantar flexion muscle force (primarily influenced by the gastrocnemius muscles) did not recover in HLS + R conditions as compared to HLS conditions and both were lower than control force production signaling for apoptosis, autophagy and anabolic markers were not different between control and HLS + R gastrocnemius and soleus muscles in geriatric mice. These results suggest that molecular signaling does not explain attenuated ability to regain muscle wet weight, fiber size or muscle force production after HLS in geriatric mice. It is possible that fluid shifts, reduced blood flow, or shortened muscle fibers which failed to regain control lengths contributed to the attenuation of muscle wet weight after HLS and reloading and this affected force production. Further work is needed to determine if altered/loss of neural activity contributed to the inability of geriatric mice to regain gastrocnemius muscle weight and function after HLS and reloading.

KEYWORDS:

Apoptosis; Autophagy; Hindlimb suspension; Muscle atrophy

PMID:
30448397
PMCID:
PMC6366863
[Available on 2020-01-01]
DOI:
10.1016/j.exger.2018.11.011

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