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Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2018 Nov 8. pii: S1353-8020(18)30491-7. doi: 10.1016/j.parkreldis.2018.11.010. [Epub ahead of print]

Brain atrophy and strategic lesion location increases risk of parkinsonism in cerebral small vessel disease.

Author information

1
Radboud University Medical Centre, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, Department of Neurology, Nijmegen, the Netherlands. Electronic address: Mayra.Bergkamp@radboudumc.nl.
2
Radboud University Medical Centre, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, Department of Neurology, Nijmegen, the Netherlands. Electronic address: Anil.Tuladhar@radboudumc.nl.
3
Radboud University Medical Centre, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, Department of Neurology, Nijmegen, the Netherlands. Electronic address: e.v.d.holst@jbz.nl.
4
Radboud University Medical Centre, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, Department of Neurology, Nijmegen, the Netherlands. Electronic address: Esther.vanLeijsen@radboudumc.nl.
5
Radboud University Medical Centre, Diagnostic Image Analysis Group, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Nijmegen, the Netherlands; Radboud University, Institute for Computing and Information Sciences, Nijmegen, the Netherlands. Electronic address: mohsenghafoorian@gmail.com.
6
Radboud University Medical Centre, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, Department of Neurology, Nijmegen, the Netherlands. Electronic address: Inge.vanUden@radboudumc.nl.
7
Radboud University Medical Centre, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, Department of Neurology, Nijmegen, the Netherlands. Electronic address: Ewoud.vanDijk@radboudumc.nl.
8
Radboud University, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Centre for Cognitive Neuroimaging, Nijmegen, the Netherlands; Erwin L. Hahn Institute for Magnetic Resonance Imaging, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany. Electronic address: D.norris@donders.ru.nl.
9
Radboud University Medical Centre, Diagnostic Image Analysis Group, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Nijmegen, the Netherlands. Electronic address: Bram.Platel@radboudumc.nl.
10
Radboud University Medical Centre, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, Department of Neurology, Nijmegen, the Netherlands. Electronic address: Rianne.Esselink@radboudumc.nl.
11
Radboud University Medical Centre, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, Department of Neurology, Nijmegen, the Netherlands. Electronic address: frankerik.deleeuw@radboudumc.nl.

Abstract

INTRODUCTION:

Incident parkinsonism in patients with comparable cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) burden is not fully explained by presence of SVD alone. We therefore investigated if severity of SVD, SVD location, incidence of SVD and/or brain atrophy plays a role in this distinct development of parkinsonism.

METHODS:

Participants were from the RUN DMC study, a prospective cohort of 503 individuals with SVD. Parkinsonism was diagnosed according to the UKPDS brain bank criteria. Fine and Gray method was used to assess the association between SVD and incident parkinsonism. Differences in white matter hyperintensities (WMH) progression and brain atrophy were calculated with a linear mixed effect analysis.

RESULTS:

After a median follow-up of 8.6 years, 32 of 501 participants developed parkinsonism (6.4%). The highest WMH load was found in the frontal lobe for both groups. Presence of more than one lacune at baseline was higher in the group who developed parkinsonism, especially in the frontal lobe (22% versus 3%, p < 0.001) and basal ganglia (12.5% versus 1%, p-value <0.001). The annual rate of total brain atrophy was significantly higher for those who developed parkinsonism compared to those who did not (8.7 ml [95%CI 7.1-10.3] and 4.9 ml [95%CI 4.5-5.3], respectively). While WMH progression was not different, incidence of lacunes and microbleeds was higher in the group with parkinsonism.

CONCLUSION:

The risk of parkinsonism in patients with SVD is especially increased when WMH and lacunes are present in the frontal lobe. A higher brain atrophy rate might further increase this risk.

KEYWORDS:

Brain atrophy; Cerebral small vessel disease; Parkinsonism

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