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Nucleic Acids Res. 2019 Jan 8;47(D1):D100-D105. doi: 10.1093/nar/gky1128.

GTRD: a database on gene transcription regulation-2019 update.

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BIOSOFT.RU, LLC, Novosibirsk 630090, Russian Federation.
Institute of Computational Technologies SB RAS, Novosibirsk 630090, Russian Federation.
Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk 630090, Russian Federation.
Institute of Cytology and Genetics SB RAS, Novosibirsk 630090, Russian Federation.


The current version of the Gene Transcription Regulation Database (GTRD; contains information about: (i) transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) and transcription coactivators identified by ChIP-seq experiments for Homo sapiens, Mus musculus, Rattus norvegicus, Danio rerio, Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Schizosaccharomyces pombe and Arabidopsis thaliana; (ii) regions of open chromatin and TFBSs (DNase footprints) identified by DNase-seq; (iii) unmappable regions where TFBSs cannot be identified due to repeats; (iv) potential TFBSs for both human and mouse using position weight matrices from the HOCOMOCO database. Raw ChIP-seq and DNase-seq data were obtained from ENCODE and SRA, and uniformly processed. ChIP-seq peaks were called using four different methods: MACS, SISSRs, GEM and PICS. Moreover, peaks for the same factor and peak calling method, albeit using different experiment conditions (cell line, treatment, etc.), were merged into clusters. To reduce noise, such clusters for different peak calling methods were merged into meta-clusters; these were considered to be non-redundant TFBS sets. Moreover, extended quality control was applied to all ChIP-seq data. Web interface to access GTRD was developed using the BioUML platform. It provides browsing and displaying information, advanced search possibilities and an integrated genome browser.

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