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Drug Alcohol Depend. 2019 Jan 1;194:173-177. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2018.09.030. Epub 2018 Nov 6.

Effects of time-varying changes in tobacco and alcohol use on depressive symptoms following pharmaco-behavioral treatment for smoking and heavy drinking.

Author information

1
Department of Psychological Sciences, Kent State University, 144 Kent Hall, P.O. Box 5190, Kent, OH, 44242-0001, USA; Center for Alcohol and Addiction Studies, Brown University School of Public Health, 121 South Main Street, Box G-S121-5, Providence, RI, USA. Electronic address: wlechner@kent.edu.
2
Department of Psychological Sciences, Kent State University, 144 Kent Hall, P.O. Box 5190, Kent, OH, 44242-0001, USA.
3
Center for Alcohol and Addiction Studies, Brown University School of Public Health, 121 South Main Street, Box G-S121-5, Providence, RI, USA.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Complete abstinence from alcohol as well as smoking cessation have been shown to predict reductions in depressive symptoms over time. However, whether reducing alcohol use or smoking positively affect depressive symptoms has yet to be examined. The current study examined depressive symptoms as a function of time-varying changes in alcohol use and smoking status following a pharmaco-behavioral treatment addressing smoking cessation and alcohol reduction.

METHODS:

Participants were heavy-drinking smokers (n = 150) followed for 26 weeks after their quit smoking date, with assessments of smoking, alcohol use, and depressive symptoms at baseline and 2, 8, 16, and 26 weeks.

RESULTS:

Abstinence from smoking was associated with significantly lower depressive symptoms, as compared to little to no reduction in smoking (B = -6.1) as well as significant reductions in smoking (B = 4.01). Exploratory analyses, which excluded observations in which a participant was abstinent, revealed a significant effect of percent change in cigarettes smoked, modeled continuously, on depressive symptoms, (B = 4.39). By contrast, no differences were observed in depressive symptoms in relation to changes in alcohol use.

CONCLUSION:

It appears that smoking abstinence is associated with improvements in depression as compared to any level of sustained or reduced use and that the magnitude of smoking reduction may be associated with lower depressive symptoms among those who did not quit successfully. If replicated, these findings may inform treatment for individuals for whom depression is a major barrier to cessation and who have been unable or are unwilling to be completely abstinent from smoking.

KEYWORDS:

Abstinence; Alcohol; Depression; Nicotine; Smoking; Smoking cessation

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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