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ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2018 Dec 12;10(49):42030-42038. doi: 10.1021/acsami.8b15619. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Implanted Battery-Free Direct-Current Micro-Power Supply from in Vivo Breath Energy Harvesting.

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Department of Materials Science and Engineering , University of Wisconsin-Madison , Madison , Wisconsin 53706 , United States.
Department of Radiology and Medical Physics , University of Wisconsin-Madison , Madison , Wisconsin 53705 , United States.
Department of Nuclear Medicine , Peking University First Hospital , Beijing 100034 , China.
State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, School of Optoelectronic Information , University of Electronic Science and Technology of China (UESTC) , Chengdu 610054 , China.
Department of Nuclear Medicine, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College , Huazhong University of Science and Technology , Wuhan 430022 , China.


In vivo biomechanical energy harvesting by implanted nanogenerators (i-NGs) is promising for self-powered implantable medical devices (IMDs). One critical challenge to reach practical applications is the requirement of continuous direct-current (dc) output, while the low-frequency body activities typically generate discrete electrical pulses. Here, we developed an ultrastretchable micrograting i-NG system that could function as a battery-free dc micro-power supply. Packaged by a soft silicone elastomer with a cavity design, the i-NG exhibited an ultralow Young's modulus of ∼45 kPa and a high biocompatibility to soft biological tissues. The i-NG was implanted inside the abdominal cavity of Sprague Dawley adult rats and directly converted the slow diaphragm movement during normal respiration into a high-frequency alternative current electrical output, which was readily transmitted into a continuous ∼2.2 V dc output after being integrated with a basic electrical circuit. A light-emitting diode was constantly operated by the breath-driven i-NG without the aid of any battery component. This solely biomechanical energy-driven dc micro-power supply offers a promising solution for the development of self-powered IMDs.


battery-free system; direct-current micro-power source; energy harvesting from respiration; implantable medical devices; implantable nanogenerator

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