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Adv Mater. 2019 Mar;31(13):e1805609. doi: 10.1002/adma.201805609. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

The Absence and Importance of Operando Techniques for Metal-Free Catalysts.

Author information

1
Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 Cass Ave, Lemont, IL, 60439, USA.
2
Department of Chemical Engineering, Waterloo Institute of Nanotechnology, University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave West, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1, Canada.
3
School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Key Laboratory of Green Chemical Media and Reactions, Ministry of Education, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang, 453007, China.
4
School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 62 Nanyang Drive, Singapore, 637459, Singapore.
5
X-Ray Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 Cass Ave, Lemont, IL, 60439, USA.

Abstract

Operando characterization techniques have played a crucial role in modern technological developments. In contrast to the experimental uncertainties introduced by ex situ techniques, the simultaneous measurement of desired sample characteristics and near-realistic electrochemical testing provides a representative picture of the underlying physics. From Li-ion batteries to metal-based electrocatalysts, the insights offered by real-time characterization data have enabled more efficient research programs. As an emerging class of catalyst, much of the mechanistic understanding of metal-free electrocatalysts continues to be elusive in comparison to their metal-based counterparts. However, there is a clear absence of operando characterization performed on metal-free catalysts. Through the proper execution of operando techniques, it can be expected that metal-free catalysts can achieve exceptional technological progress. Here, the motivation of using operando characterization techniques for metal-free carbon-based catalyst system is considered, followed by a discussion of the possibilities, difficulties and benefits of their applications.

KEYWORDS:

CO2 reduction; metal-air battery; metal-free electrocatalysts; operando characterization

PMID:
30444052
DOI:
10.1002/adma.201805609

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