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Contact Dermatitis. 2019 Mar;80(3):156-161. doi: 10.1111/cod.13181. Epub 2019 Jan 14.

Temporal changes in chromium allergy in Denmark between 2002 and 2017.

Author information

1
National Allergy Research Centre, Department of Dermatology and Allergy, Copenhagen University Hospital Herlev-Gentofte, Hellerup, Denmark.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

In 2012, Danish authorities submitted a proposal to the European Chemical Agency restricting the content of hexavalent chromium to a maximum of 3 ppm in leather goods. Following its adoption, this proposal was implemented in 2015 as a directive in the EU.

OBJECTIVES:

To examine the temporal trend of chromium contact allergy in adult dermatitis patients patch tested between 2002 and 2017, and to determine clinical characteristics and causative exposures in these patients.

METHODS:

All adult dermatitis patients patch tested between 2002 and 2017 were included. Patch test data were reviewed retrospectively. Comparisons were performed with the χ 2 test and logistic regression analysis.

RESULTS:

A total of 13 379 adults aged 18 to 99 years were patch tested between 2002 and 2017. The overall prevalence of chromium allergy was 2.2%. An overall decreasing trend was found for the prevalence of chromium allergy (Ptrend = 0.00002). Specifically, a significant difference was found for the study periods 2010 to 2013 (Ptrend  = 0.002) and 2014 to 2017 (Ptrend  < 0.0001) as compared with 2002 to 2005. Leather remained the most important single cause of allergic contact dermatitis caused by chromium. The proportion of clinically relevant leather exposures increased from 42.3% during 2002 to 2009 to 54.8% during 2010 to 2017 (P = 0.04).

CONCLUSIONS:

The prevalence of chromium allergy is decreasing. The EU Directive restricting the use of hexavalent chromium in leather goods is thought to be playing a central role in this change.

KEYWORDS:

chromium; contact allergy; hexavalent; leather; prevalence; regulation; trend

PMID:
30443954
DOI:
10.1111/cod.13181
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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