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Pediatr Nephrol. 2018 Nov 15. doi: 10.1007/s00467-018-4109-x. [Epub ahead of print]

Long-term renal outcomes of APRT deficiency presenting in childhood.

Author information

1
Faculty of Medicine, School of Health Sciences, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland.
2
Internal Medicine Services, Landspitali-The National University Hospital of Iceland, Hringbraut 101, Reykjavik, Iceland.
3
Faculty of Medicine, School of Health Sciences, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland. runolfur@landspitali.is.
4
Internal Medicine Services, Landspitali-The National University Hospital of Iceland, Hringbraut 101, Reykjavik, Iceland. runolfur@landspitali.is.
5
Children's Medical Center, Landspitali-The National University Hospital of Iceland, Hringbraut 101, Reykjavik, Iceland.
6
Faculty of Medicine, School of Health Sciences, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland. vidare@lsh.is.
7
Children's Medical Center, Landspitali-The National University Hospital of Iceland, Hringbraut 101, Reykjavik, Iceland. vidare@lsh.is.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT) deficiency is a hereditary purine metabolism disorder that causes kidney stones and chronic kidney disease (CKD). The purpose of this study was to examine the course of APRT deficiency in patients who presented in childhood.

METHODS:

The disease course of 21 (35%) patients in the APRT Deficiency Registry of the Rare Kidney Stone Consortium, who presented with manifestations of APRT deficiency and/or were diagnosed with the disorder before the age of 18 years, was studied. The effect of pharmacotherapy on renal manifestations and outcomes was thoroughly assessed.

RESULTS:

Fourteen children were placed on allopurinol, 100 (25-200) mg/day, at the age of 2.6 (0.6-16.5) years. Six of these patients had experienced kidney stone events and three had developed acute kidney injury (AKI) prior to allopurinol treatment. During 18.9 (1.7-31.5) years of pharmacotherapy, stones occurred in two patients and AKI in three. Six adult patients started allopurinol treatment, 200 (100-300) mg/day, at age 29.8 (20.5-42.4) years. Five of these patients had experienced 28 stone episodes and AKI had occurred in two. Stone recurrence occurred in four patients and AKI in two during 11.2 (4.2-19.6) years of allopurinol therapy. Lack of adherence and insufficient dosing contributed to stone recurrence and AKI during pharmacotherapy. At latest follow-up, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was 114 (70-163) and 62 (10-103) mL/min/1.73 m2 in those who initiated treatment as children and adults, respectively. All three patients with CKD stages 3-5 at the last follow-up were adults when pharmacotherapy was initiated.

CONCLUSION:

Timely diagnosis and treatment of APRT deficiency decreases renal complications and preserves kidney function.

KEYWORDS:

Allopurinol; Children; Chronic kidney disease; Crystal nephropathy; Kidney failure; Kidney stones; Kidney transplantation; Nephrolithiasis

PMID:
30443743
DOI:
10.1007/s00467-018-4109-x

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