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Int J Biol Sci. 2018 Oct 5;14(13):1782-1790. doi: 10.7150/ijbs.23586. eCollection 2018.

Novel CD44-downstream signaling pathways mediating breast tumor invasion.

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Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, College of Arts & Sciences, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar.
Biomedical Research Center, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar.
Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar.


CD44, also known as homing cell adhesion molecule is a multi-structural cell molecule involved in cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix communications. CD44 regulates a number of central signaling pathways, including PI3K/AKT, Rho GTPases and the Ras-MAPK pathways, but also acts as a growth/arrest sensor, and inhibitor of angiogenesis and invasion, in response to signals from the microenvironment. The function of CD44 has been very controversial since it acts as both, a suppressor and a promoter of tumor growth and progression. To address this discrepancy, we have previously established CD44-inducible system both in vitro and in vivo. Next, using microarray analysis, we have identified and validated Survivin, Cortactin and TGF-β2 as novel CD44-downstream target genes, and characterized their signaling pathways underpinning CD44-promoted breast cancer (BC) cell invasion. This report aims to update the literature by adding and discussing the impact of these novel three signaling pathways to better understand the CD44-signaling pathways involved in BC tumor cell invasion.


Breast cancer; CD44; Cell-adhesion molecule; Cortacti; Survivin

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